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<div>Naumachia Vaticana</div><div><br></div><div>A naumachia referred to both the staging of naval battles as mass entertainment, and the basin or building in which this took place.</div><div><br></div><div>Through the choreography of the combat, the naumachia had the ability to represent historical or pseudo-historical themes. Each of the fleets participating represented a maritime power of Ancient Greece or the Hellenistic east: Egyptians and the Tyrians for Caesar’s naumachia, Persians and Athenians for that of Augustus, Sicilians and Rhodeans for that of Claudius. </div><div><br></div><div>It required significantly greater resources than other such entertainments, and as such these spectacles were reserved for exceptional occasions, closely tied to celebrations of the emperor, his victories and his monuments. </div><div><br></div><div>After the Flavian period, naumachiae disappear from the texts almost completely. Apart from a mention in the Augustan History, a late source of limited reliability, only the town records (fastia) of Ostia tells us that in 109 Trajan inaugurated a naumachia basin. </div><div><br></div><div>This site was discovered in the 18th century on the grounds of the Vatican City, behind the Castel Sant'Angelo. Subsequent digs have revealed the complete site plan. It had bleachers (tiered stands for spectators) and the surface was about one sixth the size of the Augustan naumachia. In the absence of any texts, it has to be assumed that it was only used at the time of Trajan.</div> s3.thingpic.com
<div>The Mausoleum of Hadrian</div><div><br></div><div>The Mausoleum of Hadrian, usually known as Castel Sant'Angelo, was initially commissioned by the Roman Emperor Hadrian as a mausoleum for himself and his family. </div><div><br></div><div>The mausoleum was erected on the bank of the Tiber between 134 and 139 AD. Hadrian's ashes were placed here a year after his death in Baiae in 138, together with those of his wife Sabina, and his first adopted son, Lucius Aelius, who also died in 138. Following this, the remains of succeeding emperors were also placed here, the last recorded deposition being Caracalla in 217. </div><div><br></div><div>The building was later used by the popes as a fortress and castle, and is now a museum. </div> s3.thingpic.com
<div>Circus of Nero</div><div><br></div><div>The Circus of Nero or Circus of Caligula was a circus in ancient Rome, located mostly in the present-day Vatican City. </div><div><br></div><div>It was begun by Caligula on the property of his mother Agrippina on the Ager Vaticanus (today's rione of Borgo), and finished by Claudius. The circus was the site of the first organized, state-sponsored martyrdoms of Christians in 65. Tradition holds that two years later, Saint Peter and many other Christians shared their fate. </div><div><br></div><div>A basilica (Old St. Peter's) was erected by Constantine over the site, using some of the existing structure of the Circus of Nero. The basilica was sited so that its apse was centered on Peter's tomb (now beneath the high altar of the current St Peter's Basilica). </div><div><br></div><div>The circus itself was already abandoned by the middle of the second century AD, when the area was partitioned and given in concession to private individuals for the construction of tombs belonging to the necropolis. </div><div><br></div><div>However it seems most of the ruins of the Circus survived until 1450, when they were finally destroyed by the construction of the new St. Peter's Basilica.</div> s3.thingpic.com
<div>Baths of Caracalla</div><div><br></div><div>The Baths of Caracalla (Italian: Terme di Caracalla) in Rome, Italy, were the city's second largest Roman public baths, or thermae, likely built between AD 212 (or 211) and 216/217, during the reigns of emperors Septimius Severus and Caracalla.</div><div><br></div><div>They were in operation until the 530s and then fell into disuse and ruin.</div><div><br></div><div>Construction of the baths was probably initiated by emperor Septimius Severus and completed during the reign of his son, Caracalla. They were inaugurated in AD 216. The baths were located in the southern area of the city, Regio XII, where members of the Severan family commissioned other construction works: the via nova leading to the baths and the Septizodium on nearby Palatine Hill.</div><div><br></div><div>The baths were fully functional in the 5th century when they were referred to as one of the seven wonders of Rome. Olympiodorus of Thebes mentions a capacity of 1,600. This is interpreted to refer to the maximum number of simultaneous visitors, as the daily capacity is thought to have been 6,000 to 8,000 bathers.</div><div><br></div><div>The baths remained in use until the 6th century. In 537 during the Gothic War, Vitiges of the Ostrogoths laid siege to Rome and severed the city's water supply. Shortly thereafter the baths were abandoned.</div><div><br></div><div>Located too far away from the still populated area of Rome, the baths were mostly disused but in the 6th and 7th centuries were apparently used for the burials of pilgrims.</div> s3.thingpic.com
<div>Castra Praetoria</div><div><br></div><div>Castra Praetoria were the ancient barracks (castra) of the Praetorian Guard of Imperial Rome.</div><div><br></div><div>According to the Roman historian Tacitus, the barracks were built in 23 AD by Lucius Aelius Sejanus, the praetorian prefect serving under the emperor Tiberius, in an effort to consolidate the several divisions of the guards.</div><div><br></div><div>The barracks were erected just outside the city of Rome and surrounded by solid masonry walls, measuring a total of 440 by 380 metres (1,440 ft × 1,250 ft). Three of the four sides of the walls were later incorporated in the Aurelian Walls, and parts of them are clearly visible today.</div><div><br></div><div>The Castra Praetoria was the site of the murder of the Emperor Elagabalus, and his mother Julia Soaemias by the Praetorian Guard in 222 AD.</div><div><br></div><div>The Castra Praetoria was destroyed by Constantine I, who also disbanded the Praetorian Guard upon his conquest of Italy while Maxentius ruled as the Western Roman Emperor. Their last stand was at the Battle of the Milvian Bridge in 312, and after Constantine's victory he officially disbanded the Praetorian guard, sending them out to different corners of the empire.</div> s3.thingpic.com
<div>Baths of Diocletian</div><div><br></div><div>Baths of Diocletian were public baths in Rome, in what is now Italy. Named after emperor Diocletian and built from 298 to 306, they were the largest of the imperial baths. The project was originally commissioned by Maximian upon his return to Rome in the autumn of 298 and was continued after his and Diocletian's abdication under Constantius, father of Constantine.</div><div><br></div><div>The baths occupy the high-ground on the northeast summit of the Viminal, the smallest of the Seven hills of Rome, just inside the Agger of the Servian Wall. They served as a bath for the people residing in the Viminal, Quirinal, and Esquiline quarters of the city.</div><div><br></div><div>In the early 5th century, the baths were restored. The baths then remained in use until the siege of Rome in 537 when the Ostrogothic King Vitiges cut off the aqueducts.</div><div><br></div><div>In the 1560s, Pope Pius IV ordered the building of a basilica in some of the remains, to commemorate Christian martyrs who according to legend died during the baths' construction. </div> s3.thingpic.com
<div>Baths of Trajan</div><div><br></div><div>The Baths of Trajan were a massive thermae, a bathing and leisure complex, built in ancient Rome starting from 104 AD and dedicated during the Kalends of July in 109. </div><div><br></div><div>Commissioned by Emperor Trajan, the complex of baths occupied space on the southern side of the Oppian Hill on the outskirts of what was then the main developed area of the city, although still inside the boundary of the Servian Wall. </div><div><br></div><div>The baths were thus no longer in use at the time of the siege of Rome by the Goths in 537; with the destruction of the Roman aqueducts, all thermae were abandoned, as was the whole of the now-waterless Mons Oppius.</div> s3.thingpic.com
<div>Mausoleum of Augustus</div><div><br></div><div>The Mausoleum of Augustus (Italian: Mausoleo di Augusto) is a large tomb built by the Roman Emperor Augustus in 28 BC on the Campus Martius in Rome, Italy. </div><div><br></div><div>The mausoleum is located on the Piazza Augusto Imperatore, near the corner with Via di Ripetta as it runs along the Tiber. </div><div><br></div><div>The mausoleum was one of the first projects initiated by Augustus in the City of Rome following his victory at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC. </div>
<div>Stadium of Domitian</div><div><br></div><div>The Stadium of Domitian (Italian: Stadio di Domiziano), also known as the Circus Agonalis, was located to the north of the Campus Martius in Rome, Italy. The Stadium was commissioned around 80 AD by the Emperor Titus Flavius Domitianus as a gift to the people of Rome, and was used mostly for athletic contests.</div>
<div>Baths of Agrippa</div><div><br></div><div>The Baths of Agrippa was a structure of ancient Rome, built by Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa. It was the first of the great thermae constructed in the city, and also the first Imperial Bath.</div><div><br></div><div>In the bath's first form, completed in 25 BC, it was a hot-air room with cold plunge pools also known as a "laconian sudatorium or gymnasium". With the completion of the Aqua Virgo in 19 BC the baths were supplied with water and with the addition of a large open-air pool (Stagnum Agrippae).</div><div><br></div><div>In 599, Pope Gregory the Great transformed the Baths into a nunnery.</div><div>In the seventh century the structure (no longer in use after the Ostrogoths cut off the Roman aqueducts in the 530s) was being mined for its building materials, but much of the Baths were still standing in the sixteenth century, when the ruins were drawn by Baldassare Peruzzi and Andrea Palladio, among others.</div> s3.thingpic.com
<div>Porticus Aemilia</div><div><br></div><div>The portico was built in 193 BC by aediles Marcus Aemilius Lepidus and Lucius Aemilius Paulus (from which the name associated to the gens Aemilia; Livy, 35.10.12), and was rebuilt in 174 BC by censors Quintus Fulvius Flaccus and Aulus Postumius Albinus (Livy, 41.27.8).</div><div><br></div><div>The <i>opus incertum</i> building was very large, 487 metres (1,598 ft) long, 60 metres (200 ft) large and divided into several rooms by 294 pillars, that formed seven rows depthwise and 50 naves, each covered by a series of overlapping vaults 8.30 metres (27.2 ft) large; the total covered surface was 25,000 square metres (270,000 sq ft).</div>
<div>Horrea Galbae</div><div><br></div><div>The Horrea Galbae were warehouses (horrea) in the southern part of ancient Rome, located between the southern end of the Aventine Hill and the waste dump of Monte Testaccio. They ran for a substantial distance, possibly extending as far as the Porta Ostensis in the east and the Porticus Aemilia on the banks of the Tiber. </div><div><br></div><div>The horrea were probably built on the site of a suburban villa owned by the Sulpicii Galbae, a distinguished noble family of whom the 1st century AD Roman Emperor Galba was a member. (There are many alternative spellings of the name: Galbana, Galbiana, Galbes and so on.)</div>
<div>Temple of Claudius</div><div><br></div><div>The Temple of Claudius, also variously known as the Temple of the Divus Claudius, the Temple of the Divine Claudius and the Temple of the Deified Claudius, covered a large area to the south of the Colosseum in Rome, Italy. Little remains visible today.</div><div><br></div><div>Construction of the Temple of Claudius on the Caelian Hill was begun by Agrippina, the fourth wife of the Emperor Claudius, on his death in 54 AD. It was subsequently damaged by the Great Fire of Rome and further destroyed by Agrippina's son, Nero, but later rebuilt by the Emperor Vespasian, who became emperor in 69 AD. </div>
<div>Colosseum</div><div><br></div><div>The Colosseum or Coliseum , also known as the Flavian Amphitheatre is an oval amphitheatre in the centre of the city of Rome, Italy. Built of concrete and sand, it is the largest amphitheatre ever built. The Colosseum is situated just east of the Roman Forum. </div><div><br></div><div>Construction began under the emperor Vespasian in AD 72, and was completed in AD 80 under his successor and heir Titus. Further modifications were made during the reign of Domitian (81–96). These three emperors are known as the Flavian dynasty, and the amphitheatre was named in Latin for its association with their family name (Flavius).</div><div><br></div><div>The Colosseum could hold, it is estimated, between 50,000 and 80,000 spectators, having an average audience of some 65,000; it was used for gladiatorial contests and public spectacles such as mock sea battles (for only a short time as the hypogeum was soon filled in with mechanisms to support the other activities), animal hunts, executions, re-enactments of famous battles, and dramas based on Classical mythology. The building ceased to be used for entertainment in the early medieval era. It was later reused for such purposes as housing, workshops, quarters for a religious order, a fortress, a quarry, and a Christian shrine.</div>
<div>Ludus Magnus</div><div><br></div><div>The Ludus Magnus or The Great Gladiatorial Training School is the largest of the gladiatorial arenas in Rome, Italy. It was built by the emperor Domitian (81-96 AD) in the valley between the Esquiline and the Caelian hills, an area already occupied by Republican and Augustan structures. The still visible ruins of the monument belong to a second building stage attributed to the emperor Trajan (98-117), where the Ludus plane was raised by about 1.5 metres (4 ft 11 in).</div>
<div>Porticus of Livia</div><div><br></div><div>The Portico of Livia (Latin: porticus Liviae) was a portico in Regio III Isis et Serapis of ancient Rome. It was built by Augustus in honour of his wife Livia Drusilla.</div><div><br></div><div>In 15 BC Augustus ordered the construction of a portico to be built onto the house of Publius Vedius Pollio, a rich freedman and one of his advisors, who had left the house to Augustus. Work was completed in 7 BC, when the complex was completed and granted to Livia and her son Tiberius on the occasion of his triumph. The portico was on the northern side of the Oppian Hill, to the south of the clivus Suburanus, in an area between that street and a space later occupied by the back of the Baths of Trajan.</div>
<div>Baths of Constantine</div><div><br></div><div>Baths of Constantine was a public bathing complex built on the Quirinal Hill in Rome by Constantine I, probably before 315.</div><div><br></div><div>The last of Rome's bath complexes, they were constructed in the irregular space between the vicus Longus, the Alta Semita, the clivus Salutis and the vicus laci Fundani.</div><div><br></div><div>The Baths of Constantine probably remained in use until the Gothic War (535–554) when all but one of the aqueducts were cut by the Ostrogoths.</div>
<div>Baths of Nero</div><div><br></div><div>The Baths of Nero (Thermae Neronis) or Baths of Alexander (Thermae Alexandrinae) were a series of complex baths on the Campus Martius in ancient Rome, built by Nero in 62 and rebuilt by Alexander Severus in 227 or 229. They covered an area of about 190 by 120 metres. Their extent is shown by the modern-day piazza della Rotonda, via del Pozzo delle Cornacchie and via della Dogana Vecchia, all now on their site.</div><div><br></div><div>It was initially supplied by the Aqua Virgo, which already supplying the neighbouring Baths of Agrippa, then (on its restoration in the 3rd century) by the Aqua Alexandrina. According to Sidonius Apollinaris, it was still in use in the 5th century. It was probably the first "imperial-type" complex of baths.</div> s3.thingpic.com
<div>Saepta Julia</div><div><br></div><div>The Saepta Julia was a building in Ancient Rome where citizens gathered to cast votes. </div><div><br></div><div>The building was conceived by Julius Caesar and dedicated by Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa in 26 BC. The building was originally built as a place for the comitia tributa to gather to cast votes. </div><div><br></div><div>It replaced an older structure, called the Ovile, which served the same function. The building did not always retain its original function. It was used for gladiatorial fights by Augustus and later as a market place.</div> s3.thingpic.com
<div>Theatre of Pompey</div><div><br></div><div>The Theatre of Pompey was a structure in Ancient Rome built during the later part of the Roman Republican era. It was completed in 55BC. </div><div><br></div><div>Enclosed by the large columned porticos was an expansive garden complex of fountains and statues. Along the stretch of covered arcade were rooms dedicated to the exposition of art and other works collected by Pompey "the Great" (Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus) during his campaigns.</div><div><br></div><div>The structure's last recorded repairs were carried out in 507–511. Following Rome's populational decline during and after the Roman-Gothic wars of 535–554 there was no need for a large theater. </div> s3.thingpic.com
<div>Naumachia Augusti</div><div><br></div><div>A naumachia referred to both the staging of naval battles as mass entertainment, and the basin or building in which this took place.</div><div><br></div><div>Through the choreography of the combat, the naumachia had the ability to represent historical or pseudo-historical themes. Each of the fleets participating represented a maritime power of Ancient Greece or the Hellenistic east: Egyptians and the Tyrians for Caesar’s naumachia, Persians and Athenians for that of Augustus, Sicilians and Rhodeans for that of Claudius. </div><div><br></div><div>It required significantly greater resources than other such entertainments, and as such these spectacles were reserved for exceptional occasions, closely tied to celebrations of the emperor, his victories and his monuments. </div><div><br></div><div>Augustus built his naumachia on the bank of the Tiber where 3000 men, not counting rowers, fought in 30 vessels with rams and a number of smaller boats.</div><div><br></div><div><br></div>
<div>Porticus Octaviae</div><div><br></div><div>The structure was built by Augustus in the name of his sister, Octavia Minor, sometime after 27 BC, in place of the Porticus Metelli. The colonnaded walks of the portico enclosed the temples of Jupiter Stator and Juno Regina, next to the Theater of Marcellus. </div><div><br></div><div>It burned in 80 AD and was restored, probably by Domitian, and again after a second fire in 203 AD by Septimius Severus and Caracalla. It was adorned with foreign marble and contained many famous works of art, enumerated in Pliny's Natural History.</div>
<div>Baths of Decius</div><div><br></div><div>The Baths of Decius were a thermae (baths) complex built on the Aventine Hill by the emperor Decius in 249.</div>
<div>Baths of Licinius Sura</div><div><br></div><div>The Baths of Licinius Sura or Thermae Suranae were an ancient Roman bath complex built by Lucius Licinius Sura on the Aventine Hill (Regio XIII) in Rome.</div><div><br></div><div>It was restored during the short reign of Gordian III. The baths were damaged during the 410 sack of Rome by Alaric I, and again restored in 414. </div>
<div>Temple of Peace</div><div><br></div><div>The Temple of Peace, also known as the Forum of Vespasian (Latin: Forum Vespasiani), was built in Rome in 71 AD under Emperor Vespasian. It faces the Velian Hill, toward the famous Colosseum, and was on the southeast side of the Argiletum. </div><div><br></div><div>The Temple of Peace was damaged during the sack of Rome in 410 by Alaric I and never restored after the event.</div>
<div>Forum of Augustus</div><div><br></div><div>The Forum of Augustus is one of the Imperial forums of Rome, Italy, built by Augustus. It includes the Temple of Mars Ultor. The incomplete forum and its temple were inaugurated, 40 years after they were first vowed, in 2 BC.</div>
<div>Trajan's Forum</div><div><br></div><div>Trajan's Forum was the last of the Imperial fora to be constructed in ancient Rome. The architect Apollodorus of Damascus oversaw its construction.</div><div><br></div><div>This forum was built on the order of the emperor Trajan with the spoils of war from the conquest of Dacia, which ended in 106.The Fasti Ostienses state that the Forum was inaugurated in 112, while Trajan's Column was erected and then inaugurated in 113.</div>
<div>Basilica of Maxentius</div><div><br></div><div>The Basilica of Maxentius and Constantine, sometimes known as the Basilica Nova - meaning "new basilica" - or Basilica of Maxentius, is an ancient building in the Roman Forum, Rome, Italy. It was the largest building in the Forum.</div><div><br></div><div>Construction began on the northern side of the forum under the emperor Maxentius in 308, and was completed in 312 by Constantine I after his defeat of Maxentius at the Battle of the Milvian Bridge.</div>
<div>Temple of Venus and Roma</div><div><br></div><div>The Temple of Venus and is thought to have been the largest temple in Ancient Rome. Located on the Velian Hill, between the eastern edge of the Forum Romanum and the Colosseum, it was dedicated to the goddesses Venus Felix ("Venus the Bringer of Good Fortune") and Roma Aeterna ("Eternal Rome"). </div><div><br></div><div>The architect was the emperor Hadrian and construction began in 121. It was officially inaugurated by Hadrian in 135, and finished in 141 under Antoninus Pius. Damaged by fire in 307, it was restored with alterations by the emperor Maxentius.</div>
<div>Temple of Apollo Palatinus</div><div><br></div><div>The Temple of Apollo Palatinus (Palatine Apollo) was a temple on the Palatine Hill of ancient Rome, which was first dedicated by Augustus to his patron god Apollo. It was only the second temple in Rome dedicated to the god, after the Temple of Apollo Sosianus. It was sited next to the Temple of Cybele.</div><div><br></div>
<div>Domus Tiberiana</div><div><br></div><div>The Domus Tiberiana was believed to be the palace of the emperor Tiberius, but was probably build during the reign of Nero.</div>
<div>Palace of Domitian</div><div><br></div><div>The Palace of Domitian (or Flavian Palace as other Flavian emperors also had a hand in its construction) sits atop the Palatine Hill, and was built as Domitian's imperial palace. Designed by the architect, Rabirius, the Palace is a massive three-part structure, separated to allow business matters and private life to be conducted in parallel. </div><div><br></div><div>The modern names used for these parts are:</div><div>the Domus Flavia</div><div>the Domus Augustana</div><div>the garden or "stadium".</div><div><br></div><div>The palace remained the official residence of the emperors until the end of the Empire.</div>
<div>Circus Maximus</div><div><br></div><div>The Circus Maximus (Latin for greatest or largest circus, in Italian Circo Massimo) is an ancient Roman chariot racing stadium and mass entertainment venue located in Rome, Italy. </div><div><br></div><div>Situated in the valley between the Aventine and Palatine hills, it was the first and largest stadium in ancient Rome and its later Empire. </div><div><br></div><div>It measured 621 m (2,037 ft) in length and 118 m (387 ft) in width and could accommodate over 150,000 spectators. In its fully developed form, it became the model for circuses throughout the Roman Empire. The site is now a public park.</div>
<div>Forum Boarium</div><div><br></div><div>The Forum Boarium was the cattle forum venalium of Ancient Rome. It was located on a level piece of land near the Tiber between the Capitoline, the Palatine and Aventine hills. As the site of the original docks of Rome (Portus Tiberinus), the Forum Boarium experienced intense commercial activity.</div><div><br></div><div>The Forum Boarium was the site of the first gladiatorial contest at Rome which took place in 264 BC as part of aristocratic funerary ritual—a munus or funeral gift for the dead. Marcus and Decimus Junius Brutus Scaeva put on a gladiatorial combat in honor of their deceased father with three pairs of gladiators.</div>
<div>Capitoline</div><div><br></div><div>The Capitoline Triad was a group of three deities who were worshipped in ancient Roman religion in an elaborate temple on Rome's Capitoline Hill (Latin Capitolium). Two distinct Capitoline Triads were worshipped at various times in Rome's history, both originating in ancient traditions predating the Roman Republic. </div><div><br></div><div>The one most commonly referred to as the "Capitoline Triad" is the more recent of the two, consisting of Jupiter, Juno and Minerva. The earlier triad, sometimes referred to in modern scholarship as the Archaic Triad, consisted of Jupiter, Mars and Quirinus and was Indo-European in origin. Each triad held a central place in the public religion of Rome during its time.</div>
<div>Arx</div><div><br></div><div>Arx is a Latin word meaning "citadel". In the ancient city of Rome, the arx was located on the northern spur of the Capitoline Hill, and is sometimes specified as the Arx Capitolina.</div><div><br></div><div>On the Arx was located the auguraculum, the open space where the augurs conducted the rituals that determined whether the gods approved of whatever undertaking was at hand, public business or military action. This auguraculum was the stone where the elected monarch, during the Roman Kingdom, was seated by the augurs with his face to the south.</div>
<div>Theatre of Marcellus</div><div><br></div><div>The Theatre of Marcellus (Latin: Theatrum Marcelli, Italian: Teatro di Marcello) is an ancient open-air theatre in Rome, Italy, built in the closing years of the Roman Republic. At the theatre, locals and visitors alike were able to watch performances of drama and song. </div><div><br></div><div>The theatre fell out of use in the early 4th century and the structure served as a quarry for e.g. the Pons Cestius in 370 AD. However, the statues located inside the building were restored by Petronius Maximus in 421 and the remaining structure still housed small residential buildings. In the Early Middle Ages the theatre was used as a fortress of the Fabii and then at the end of the 11th century (when it was known as templum Marcelli), by Pier Leoni and later his heirs (the Pierleoni). </div>
<div>Circus Varianus</div><div><br></div><div>Circus Varianus was a Roman circus, possibly started around the time of Caracalla, residing in the palatial villa complex known as the Sessorium, beside the Amphitheatrum Castrense. This circus has been identified as the space in which Elagabalus raced horses under the family name of Varius, lending the site the name of "Circus Varianus." </div><div><br></div><div>The remnants of the circus survive to the south of Porta Maggiore, next to the Aurelian Wall, near the church of Santa Croce in Gerusalemme. The dimensions of the circus measure 565 x 125 meters, just slightly smaller than the Circus Maximus (600 x 150 m).</div>