Modern World History Honors 2017 Final Projects
<div><b>Rojava Revolution: A Quest for Radical Democracy</b></div><div>By: Amelia Browne</div><div>Currently, the Kurds in Syria, Iran, and Turkey are fighting two battles. One is against ISIS, to protect minorities from the violence the organization inflicts. The other is also a battle key to the protection of human rights. It is fought to develop a stateless democracy. Through the formation of two militias called the YPG and YPJ, the Kurds have been the most effective defense against ISIS. The YPJ is made up entirely of women, while the YPG is coed. Instead of fighting for a state to be established, the Rojava revolution values women as leaders, enshrines defense of the environment in law, and enacts radical direct democracy.</div> Maya lintel exhibition in Room 3, part of A History of the World series
<div>The Dreyfus Affair</div><div>By: Elliott Cherry</div><div>The Dreyfus was a significant event which accelerated the pace of Anti-semitism within France over the next century. The affair catalyzed the formation of a new extreme right of Anti-semitism, nationalism and resentment against the new economic order which recent events Anti-semitic events in France can be related to. In addition, the Dreyfus Affair facilitated the creation of the Zionist movement and added pressure to the creation of Israel along with the opposition to the creation of Israel. Although there's some similarities between modern Anti-semitism and historic Jewish resentment, the main cause of the Dreyfus Affair can be traced back to the anti-Jew movements dating back a thousand years. Likewise, because many European countries including France implemented freedom for the Jewish population in the second half of the nineteenth century, Anti-semitism lurked in the background within European countries until the occurrence of the Dreyfus Affair. Furthermore, because institutions like the French army viewed Jews as “outsiders,” it allowed for Dreyfus to be convicted and proven guilty strictly based on the fact that he identified as a Jew.Similar to the Dreyfus affair where intellectuals like Émile Zola intervened in French politics to prove Dreyfus of his innocence, modern intellectuals intervention in the media could be a solution to recent spur of Anti-semitism within Europe and France. Moreover, a greater encouragement of education around religious sensitivity could provide useful to combat the recent anti-Jew movements. In addition, the implementation of more celebrations of diversity in French society could also be a solution to modernized Anti-semitism.</div><div><br></div><div><br></div>
<div><b><i>The Fallout of the European Union</i></b></div><div>Andrew Sim</div><div>The European Union is facing tensions regarding various social and economic issues that have arisen during the last few decades. Calamities such as that of the Syrian refugee crises have created both economic and social points of contention, causing nations such as France and Britain to hope to leave the union entirely. However, the European Union was originally conceived to establish an alliance between European nations to prevent another major conflict such as World War II. The potential discardment and obsoletion of a device that encourages and fosters inter-European peace and economic stimulation jeopardizes the long established peace in Europe. In a time in which nations are faced with difficult and divisive decisions concerning global affairs, the frustration, manifesting itself in hyper-nationalist movements and other extremist agendas, has only escalated such tensions, leaving the fate of Europe precariously uncertain.</div><div><br></div> Welcome to r/KenM! This subreddit is dedicated to posts of a quirky old man, who is known as KenM. Please review the rules before posting!
<div><b>North and South Korea Schism</b></div><div>Connor Salk</div><div>North and South Korea were initially one, unified country. However, conflict arose after the fall of Japan following WWII, resulting in the two major powers of the world, the United States and the Soviet Union, occupying the North and the South. Due to the two conflicting ideologies of the respective world powers, North and South Korea have been at conflict to this day, eliciting much political outcry. </div> The president’s ouster, after months of turmoil over a corruption scandal, is expected to shift the country’s politics to the opposition on the left.
<div><b><i>Boko Haram's Power in Nigeria </i></b></div><div>Olivia Lease</div><div>Boko Haram is still a major force throughout West Africa due to its power in not only Nigeria, but in Cameroon, Niger and Chad as well. Boko Haram’s origins are closely related to the spread of Islam throughout West Africa, which was introduced as early as the 8th century. However, it was not until Great Britain’s violent colonization of West Africa in which Christianity was instilled that violence became normalized. Nigeria’s civil war was also a trigger for terrorist groups such as Boko Haram to rise as a divide between Northern and Southern, or Muslim and Christian, parts of Nigeria was formed, creating even more tensions between Muslim and Eastern ideals and Christianity and Western ideals.</div><div><br></div> Fighters reportedly attack farmers in city of Maiduguri as food shortages in the country's northeast worsen.
<div><b><i>The Taboo of Menstruation</i></b></div><div>Helene de Marcellus</div><div>Throughout the world, menstruating women are regarded as impure and lesser, based on cultural and religious views. They are often discriminated against, whether it be as extreme as the practice of Chaupadi in Nepal or prohibiting menstruating women from attending school or religious services. When menstruating, women often fall behind in their studies and even drop out of school, and at their extremes, some of these practices can and have resulted in the death.</div> In Nepal, a traditional belief about the impurity of menstrual blood means women and girls are banished to makeshift huts.
<div><b>The China and Taiwan Conflict</b></div><div>Alex Le</div><div><br></div><div>The People’s Republic of China, representing communism in mainland China, and the Republic of China, representing capitalism in Taiwan, both claim that their respective regime is the legitimate government for all of China. As globalization began to spread, outside nations took interest in this civil conflict, compelling America to favor the capitalist Kuomintang while the Russians supported the communist People’s Republic of China. China proposed a “one nation, two systems” method that would officially make Taiwan part of China, but allow them to keep their own governmental system and freedoms, like Hong Kong and Macao. However, the pro-independence movement is gaining more momentum, and if Taiwan officially declares its independence, it will provoke China to instigate another civil war.</div><div><br></div> China sees Taiwan as a breakaway province that will eventually be part of the country again, but many Taiwanese want a separate nation.
<div><b>From the One-child Policy to the Two-child Policy</b></div><div>Stella Wong</div><div>From 1980 to 2015, China’s one-child policy limited one birth per Han Chinese couple to curb China’s rapid population growth, which was nearing 1 billion at its commencement. While the one-child policy drastically reduced fertility rates and prevented 400 million births, it led to various unintended consequences and in particular, a dwindling workforce that will be unable to support China’s rapidly aging population. In response to these growing problems, the two-child policy was introduced in late 2015 and has succeeded in increasing the fertility rate thus far, but it is still substantially too low to achieve the replacement fertility rate. </div> Author: Liu Lili, Chinese Central Party School At the beginning of 2016 the Chinese government relaxed its family planning laws to allow all married couples to have a second child. The new policy came into effect in March after formal ratification by the National People’s Congress. But, one year on, how effective has this new policy really been? During the 12th National People’s Congress in March 2017, Wang Pei'an, Deputy Director of the National Health and Family Planning Commission of China, reported that live births in national hospitals numbered 18.46 million in 2016 and that the fertility rate reached 1.7 per cent — the highest rate since 2000. This initial progress is owing to hard work by both the Chinese government and society over the past year. To encourage couples to have a second child, the 18th Meeting of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress reviewed the ‘Amendment to the Population and Family Planning Law of the People's Republic of China’. Their new
<div><b><span style="font-size:16px;">Belt and Road Forum for International Cooperation</span></b></div><div><span style="font-size:13px;">Chelsea Wong</span></div><div><br></div><div>On May 14-15, 2017, China held the Belt and Road Forum for International Cooperation in Beijing, where China’s president and Communist party chief, Xi Jinping, spoke about his “belt and road” initiative, which involves China sponsoring billions of dollars of infrastructure investment in countries along the old Silk Road throughout Asia, Africa, and Europe. By reviving the the Silk Road through infrastructure projects, Mr. Xi hopes to emulate the old Silk Road’s cultural intermingling by creating new trade routes and better connectivity between countries, establishing a closer, more harmonious world. China designed the “belt and road” initiative to be open to any countries that would like to join, and by gaining Russia’s and more than one hundred other foreign attendees’ advocacy, China is making progress in their aim to create worldwide cooperation and peace. </div>
<div><b><i>Divided Island of the Dominican Republic and Haiti</i></b></div><div><b><i>By Nandi Maunder</i></b></div><div><br></div><div>After centuries of conflict, colonization, and racism on the island housing both Haiti and the Dominican Republic, it has festered specifically in the Dominican Republic as a complete and utter hate for the Haitians they share a border with.Currently, Haitian immigrants who had Dominican citizenship through birth, an application process have been overturned by the Dominican government. This strong, overarching movement to strip Haitian-Dominican immigrants of their status, denies them access to the rights of a fully Dominican citizen, further alienating them and leaving them more vulnerable in the extremely anti-Haitian society.</div>
<div>Rise of the Far Right-Wing in Western Europe</div><div><br></div><div>Across Western Europe, a rise in far right-wing doctrine has emerged, culminating in several ultra conservative political parties coming into power. The general cause of the rise of the right can be traced back to the trend of globalization across Europe and the world, which is perceived as encroaching upon European culture and national identity through an influx of immigrants and unification movements, the EU for instance.</div><div><br></div> Breaking news and analysis from Politics, world news, photos, video, tech reviews, health, science and entertainment news.
<div><b><i>Demographic and Economic Decline in Japan</i></b></div><div>Renee Ferguson</div><div>The Japanese population is rapidly declining, causing the economy to simultaneously deteriorate. The government remains reluctant to allow large scale immigration, a product of Japanese nationalism which has, since the 19th century, manifested as xenophobia and racism. Japan has also maintained traditional gender roles which continue to make it difficult for women to reenter the workforce after giving birth. If the Japanese are to maintain their rank as one of the world’s economic powerhouses, the Japanese must supplant current nationalism with a revived form of the neoliberal internationalism prevalent in the 1980s.</div> The latest forecasts for the decline in the nation's population are likely to bring forward the debate on immigration, despite the government's refusal to
<div><span style="font-size:16px;">Natalie Getsey</span></div><div><br></div><div>Today there are misconceptions and uncertainties about Middle Eastern societies and how their progress is affected by the Islamic religion, which has been referred to as "backwards". However, since 550 BCE, places such as Iran have been stressing the importance of hygiene through religious practices and discovering new medical treatments in order to ensure the health of communities. Iranian physicians have made incredible breakthroughs in neuroscience since the Islamic Golden Age, and this year (January 2017) the first herbal medicine for curing symptoms of Alzheimer's is available in the Middle East.</div> TEHRAN, Jan. 21 (MNA) – Researchers at Iranian Institute of Medicinal Plants will unveil on Tue. a type of herbal medicine ‘Melitropic’ that can be used in treatment of Alzheimer’s disease.
<div><b><i>The Russian Annexation of Crimea</i></b></div><div><i>By: Ben Modlin</i></div><div>In early 2014, Russia started its process in gaining de facto control of Crimea, once a semi-autonomous part of Ukraine. After a disputed referendum of the Crimean population, which was illegal under Ukrainian law, that stated nearly all of its citizens wanted to secede from Ukraine, the Federation Council of Russia approved Crimea’s request to join the Russian Federation. Although Ukraine and most of the international community condemn Russia's annexation of Crimea as illegal under international law, the Russian government believes that it is the rightful owner of Crimea and is simply a peacekeeper. In addition to Crimea once being a part of the Soviet Union, Crimea also has an ethnic Russian majority as it is in eastern Ukraine. Therefore, much of the Crimean population still feels allegiance towards Russia, and would support joining the Russian Federation. Additionally, the Russian government still feels as it owns Crimea, since it was given to Ukraine when Ukraine was still a part of the USSR. This annexation has inspired nationalistic movements among Ukrainian separatists across the eastern part of the country, who are as a result are currently resorting to violence to fight Ukrainian government forces. Also, Russian citizens overwhelmingly supported the annexation of Crimea, which greatly improved their view on President Putin. While a multitude of other nations have introduced economic and political sanctions against Russia, no nation has intervened militarily. </div> Apache Tomcat/8.0.33 - Error report
<div>By Tess McCamy-Miller</div><div><br></div><div>The current crisis I attempt to tackle in this project is sex trafficking and prostitution in India. India is home to some of the biggest red-light districts in Asia, and possibly the world, and there are approximately 30 million women and girls in the sex trade today. Prostitution is currently legal in India, but sex trafficking, brothels, and underage prostitution remain illegal. Prostitution is considered to be the “oldest profession,” dating back to as far as historians can trace organized human society. Sex trafficking, however, appeared as a result of poverty, sexism and discrimination. Although prostitution was previously a religious institution, sex trafficking came after the social demonization of the trade. There are numerous ways in which locals have attempted to address this crisis, one of which is providing alternate ways of making money for women in the trade. Others attempt to educate young girls who are in danger of entering the trade, such as girls in places of poverty, or children of prostitutes, to give these girls a chance to succeed in other professions. I, however, believe that the most effective way to attack the problem is to educate young boys and teach them about equality and respect in order to attack the root cause of supply and demand. </div><div><br></div><div>Tess McCamy-Miller</div><div><br></div> The Durbar co-op's successes must be measured against vast injustices that foster prostitution everywhere. Last of four.
<div><b><i>Drug Trafficking in The Golden Triangle</i></b></div><div>Alec Sievers</div><div><br></div><div>Between Laos, Myanmar, and Thailand lays a vast mountain rage perfect for the cultivation and exportation of illicit opium. Farmers are forced to grow poppy plants to create, opium, heroin, and methamphetamines which are exported to foreign countries (predominantly China), worth $16.3 billion, to support their families. Recently, a group of 20,000 traffickers known as the United Wa State Army (UWSA), has resorted to violence with the Burmese, Thai, and Lao governments to continue their exportation of illegal narcotics. </div><div><br></div> The illegal drugs trade in the region is worth $16.3 billion
<div><b>Rise of Right Wing Populism in France</b></div><div><b>Caroline Schurz</b></div><div>As nationalism and xenophobia spread, a wave of right wing populism sweeps over Europe. Focusing on the rise of the ultraconservative Front National party in France, this traditionally liberal country is taking more pronounced stances on globalization and immigration. French Marine Le Pen lead this movement and promote a nostalgia in returning to an antiquated France. As demonstrated by Frances 10% unemployment rate, the lowest since the Recession, industrial, rural regions of France have suffered from the effects of economic globalization. Additionally, with an influx of Syrian refugees and frequent terrorist attacks, Marine Le Pen lauds herself as the guardian of Western values and the Judeo-Christian population. Lastly, to the middle-class French worker, a vote for this populist campaigns, was a vote against the elite class which had come to control much of the nation’s wealth and political power. Front National’s Marine Le Pen garnered the support of more than a third of France’s population, by far the largest victory for the nationalist party. Although the unpopular centrist, Emanuel Macron won in France, growing anti-semitism, islamophobia, and racism diffuse throughout France. While Le Pen attempts to fight back against the tide of globalization and automation, only by embracing the new Muslim diversity, and investing in job retraining to integrate blue collar workers into the growing technological industry can France return to its prime. </div><div><br></div>
<div><b><i>Aleppo: A City at a Crossroads</i></b></div><div>Samuel Modlin</div><div><br></div><div>The city of Aleppo in Syria is a major site of a civil war and a humanitarian crisis, that started in 2011 between Bashar al Assad and rebels that protested his rule. Modern day fighting in Aleppo stems from centuries of turmoil, starting as far back as the crusades and as recent as the al-Assad regime. </div> Some 3,000 people were evacuated from the remaining rebel-held districts of Aleppo, and President Bashar al-Assad claimed a great victory.
<div><span style="font-size:16px;"><b><i>Afghan Opium:</i></b></span></div><div>By: Andrew fisher</div><div>Afghanistan currently controls 93% of all illegal opium production. This is a result of Taliban control of Afghani territories, the Soviet-Afghani war, the American-Afghani war, Chinese 14th century opium, ancient Greek opium culture, geographical proximity to India Syria and Iran, and economically driven corrupt Afghani government.</div><div><br></div> The crowded poppy fields in Helmand Province, overflowing with both opium bulbs and laborers, amounted to an insurgent recruiter’s dream.
<div><b>The History of the Swastika</b></div><div>For thousands of years, the swastika was a symbol of good fortune amongst almost every culture in the world. That was until Hitler used the swastika to represents the Nazis and the swastika would go on to become the most hated symbol of the 20th century. The swastika's significance transformed into a symbol representing fascism and hatred. </div>
<div><b><i>North Korea Continues to Develop Missile Technology</i></b></div><div>Seaver Dahlgren</div><div><br></div><div>On May 21, 2017 North Korea launched another ballistic missile in order to develop long-range missile technology that can carry nuclear warheads. The acceleration of its nuclear program could lead to nuclear war. The origination of this crisis can be traced back to the first use of nuclear bomb's in WWII, the division of Korea during the Cold War, and the establishment of North Korean identity after the Korean War.</div> The medium-range ballistic missile was launched days after the UN demanded tests should stop.
<div><span style="font-size:16px;">Secularism in Turkey: from Ataturk to Erdogan</span></div><div><i>By Reilly Manton</i></div><div>The rise of President Recep Tayyip Erdogan, an Islamic fundamentalist, in Turkey is representative of Turkey's deviation from its core value of secularism, instituted by its founder, Mustafa Kemal Ataturk. Ataturk's failing secular principles stem from the Ottoman Empire and early Turkish Republic's rapid secularization, despite their deep Muslim roots. </div> President Recep Tayyip Erdogan: The man who has dominated Turkish politics since 2002.
<div><i><b>The Road to the Reunification of Cyprus</b></i></div><div><br></div><div><i>By Aidan Niles</i></div><div><br></div><div>The issue of Cyprus’s reunification has created major foreign relations issues between Greece, Turkey, the United States, Russia, and Britain as well as the Turkish and Greek Cypriot populations as each seeks to manipulate the conflict to further their own political agendas. With the Turkish Invasion of 1974 splitting the country in two as a response to a Greek military coup and the violent struggle to find a newfound national identity exacerbating ethnic tensions, the issue of Cyprus’s reunification serves as a ongoing reconciliation of a troubled colonial past with an uncertain future that holds the stability of the Mediterranean and wider world in its grasp. </div> The Turkish leader, however, often takes a firmer line with domestic audiences than with foreign ones, and diplomats said they remained cautiously optimistic.
<div><b><span style="font-size:16px;">Iranian Presidential Election and the Iranian Republic's faux democracy </span></b></div><div>by Grace Herbst</div><div><br></div><div>On the 19th of May 2017, Iranians elected their new president, the relatively moderate Hassan Rouhani. Western Imperialism's interference in Iranian politics, the elimination of monarchy in the Revolution of 1977-1979, and the clerics claiming power of the government after the Revolution were the leading events that caused the a presidential election which was closely monitored and controlled by the clerics between a hardliner and more moderate president. </div><div><br></div> A huge turnout helped Mr Rouhani, with Tehran registering twice as many votes as in 2013.
<div><b>2012 Delhi Gang Rape</b></div><div>Callie Jones</div><div>On December 16, 2012, a 23 year-old female physiotherapy intern named Jyoti Singh was beaten and raped on a bus in Delhi, India by 4 to 6 men. India's caste system, Hindu roots, and British colonial influence on the Dowry system has created a patriarchal society in which women and girls are seen as a burden, resulting in a prominence of sexual abuse and a struggle to create a safer environment for women. </div><div><br></div> An Indian court sentences four men to death for gang raping and murdering a student in Delhi, in a case which led to nationwide protests and new laws.
<div><b><i>The Nation-State of the Jewish People Bill: Zionism in Modern Israel</i></b></div><div>Kate Swart</div><div>As of May 2017, Israel's legislators preliminarily voted to pass the Nation-State of the Jewish People Bill (NSJP), which aims to unify the Jewish people of Israel but excludes the Muslim, Arabic-speaking Palestinians whose territories lie within Israel, creating yet another uproar in the ongoing dispute between Israeli and Palestinian people in the region. Widespread anti-Semitism across Europe, especially during World War II, created a rise in Zionism, the belief in developing and preserving a Jewish safe haven in Israel, which is the driving force behind modern efforts, such as this bill, to establish a strong Jewish identity in Israel, which excludes the Palestinians as a result. </div> Yesterday, the Israeli Knesset passed a bill titled “Nation State of the Jewish People” in a preliminary vote. In explaining the need for the bill MK Avi Dichter said:
<div><b>The Chinese Belt and Road Initiative</b></div><div>In February of 2016, the first train linking China and Iran arrived in Tehran carrying Chinese goods. In January of 2016, the two nations signed a 10 year, US$ 600 billion trade agreement. Over the last few years China has invested billions of dollars in central asian infrastructure to expedite its exportation to Europe and Africa, continuing long term chinese economic growth. This initiative was caused by China's current economic growth rate being at its slowest in 25 years, less recently the industrial revolution spurred by Mao's "Great Leap Forward" campaign, and policies created by statesman Deng Xiaoping to make it easier for state run and private companies to export goods from China. </div><div><br></div><div><br></div>
<div><b>China/Taiwan Conflict</b></div><div>James Zhao</div><div>Ever since the 1950s, The People's Republic of China (mainland) have been in conflict with the People's Republic of China (Island of Taiwan) over the political status of Taiwan as a separate nation or part of China, as well as which nation is the legitimate Chinese. The conflict originated in 1949 when Chiang Kai-Shek first fled to Taiwan, beginning the capitalist nation of Taiwan, from Mao Ze Dong, the communist leader of China. China attempt to unite Taiwan multiple times under a "one nation, two system" relationship; however, Taiwan's re-election of KMT and DPP candidates has pushed the ROC towards unification, as well as the PRC towards more forceful means of unification. </div> Password Logon Page
<div><b>Prejudice and Violence Against Women Receiving an Education in Afghanistan</b></div><div>Hailey Weisel</div><div>In Afghanistan during 2015, there were over 180 attacks on schools and hospitals that mostly traced back terrorist groups opposed to girl’s receiving an education along with an attack in 2008 that killed 100 girls at a recently opened school. Although the Taliban had left the country in 2001, there is still extreme stigma and prejudice against women, which resulted in few being allowed to go to school to learn how to read or write. After the Russians invaded Afghanistan and implemented laws enabling women to receive an education, extremist, islamic groups emerged and revolted, which led to a Soviet-Afghan war and resulted in a vulnerable Afghanistan. The Taliban, a extremist terrorist group, took over and implemented their policies in Afghanistan, which led to new laws restricting women's freedom and leading to extreme violence and prejudice. </div> Terrorists will stop at nothing to keep Afghan girls from receiving an education. But Razia Jan's school continues to open its doors.
<div><b>Russian Expansionism</b></div><div><br></div><div>Russia’s annexation of the Ukrainian territory of Crimea in 2014 is one example of Putin’s erratic expansion policy. Why Russia continues to try and expand it's territory is a complicated issue, in which the reasoning is embedded deep in Russian culture. Russian expansionism is a major issue because it is very dangerous to the international system. </div><div><br></div><div>Will Jacobsen</div> Provides and overview, basic facts and key events for the semi-autonomous region of Ukraine
<div style="text-align: center;"><b><span style="font-size:16px;">Anti-Semitism as a Result of Right-wing Populism</span></b></div><div style="text-align: center;">by Sarah Flynn</div><div><br></div><div>In 2013, the Bundestag, Germany's parliamentary body, rejected the petition to ban the National Democratic Party in Germany (NPD), a group infamous for its adoption/practice of Nazi ideology. Anti-semitism has consequently emerged from the NPD's nationalist influence, a theme similarly found in the unification of Germany in 1871, the rise of the Third Reich around 1933, and the influence of the Nuremberg war-crime trials from 1945-1946. </div> Court finds 'lack of evidence' the NPD violates Germany's constitution
<div><i><b>The Jerusalem Conflict</b></i></div><div>By Benja Share</div><div><br></div><div>Jerusalem is currently a contested city between the Palestinian National Authority and the State of Israel as both states consider it their capital. Jerusalem is a major religious site for Islam, Judaism and Christianity and is therefor is contested between multiple groups of people. This conflict was caused by the wars fought between the Palestinian National Authority and the State of Israel during 1948 and 1967, as well as the forceful taking of Palestinian land in 1947 by the British to create Israel. </div> BBC NEWS
<div><b><i>Brexit, British Nationalism, and the EU</i></b></div><div>Colin Yoon</div><div>Britain recently voted to leave the EU and decided to leave the EU with 51.9% of the population voting to leave on June 23, 2016. One of the major issues which motivated Britain's departure was a rise in immigration caused by the EU's open border with Britain. A rise in terrorism, problems created during the creation of the EU, and Britain's loss of its colonial economy caused the rise of nationalism within Britain and a its slow descent towards isolationism.</div> Peers accept MPs’ decision to reject amendments aimed at guaranteeing rights of EU citizens and vote on final Brexit bill
<div><b>Boko Haram's Deep Roots</b></div><div>Sage Rossman</div><div><br></div><div>In April 2014, 276 schoolgirls were abducted from the Nigerian town of Chibok by Boko Haram, a Nigerian Islamic extremist group. Boko Haram has been active since 2009 and opposes primarily Western education, government, and religion. Islamic insurgencies of the early 19th century show many historical parallels between Boko Haram's endeavors and previous political turbulence in the region. The cultural animosity between eastern and western ideals finds its roots in the social and cultural dynamics developed under British imperial rule, as well as in the region's long history of religious conflict. </div> Latest breaking news from around the world, US, entertainment, science, technology, current events, politics and elections all on!
<div><b><i>Violence Against Women in India: Progress or Lack Thereof</i></b></div><div>Anabelle Watson</div><div>Women are, and have been, the majority of victims of violence in India. It affects women of all economic classes and social stratas, but affects a higher percentage of women in poverty. There are many different forms of violence against women such as rape, sexual harassment, acid attacks, sex selective abortions, and honor killings.</div><div>There are many causes and reasons for this perpetration of violence against women, some of which are: poverty, patriarchy, dowry for marriage, lack of female representation in government, antiquated ideals held for women, and lack of law enforcement. All of these factors play into why this violence against women is still going on today, and at such staggering rates. None of these things alone cause this violence against women, as these things can be found in many countries, but together cause the levels of violence against women in India that are so much higher than other places.</div> Several high-profile sexual assault cases in India have sparked a national debate over women’s rights and the need for social reform in a rapidly modernizing country. 
<div>Grant Curry</div><div><br></div><div>Olympic doping in Russia has been prevalent throughout the last 40 years. While the issue roots back to when Russia was part of the Soviet Union, doping has slowed down after the fall of the Soviet Union. However, a 2014 German newspaper article proved that Russian government sponsored doping had returned in a big way. The IOC, who looked into the scandal, found 118 Russian athletes guilty of doping and banned all of these athletes from competing in the 2016 Rio Olympics. This doping scandal stemmed from many things, but the Soviet/Russian desire to show their dominance over the West is a huge reason why the government wanted athletes to dope. For the 40 odd years succeeding World War II, the Russians and Americans were locked in the Cold War. Each country tried to one-up one another and strived to show their superiority in all aspects of life. The case of doping is no exception, as the Soviets saw athletics as a perfect way to show their power and resulted to doping because they wanted to ensure victory by any means necessary. The Russian doping scandal in 2014 happened because of Putin’s desire to revert Russia back to its old Soviet ways and saw doping as another way he could add to this movement. Over the years, a few solutions to the problem have come up but none have fully put an end to doping. Drug tests have been successful in most cases, but couldn’t stop the corrupt Russian government from doping. These tests didn’t stop the Russians from doping because the IOC trusted the government to perform tests on their own athletes but since the government was in on the scandal, they sent in fake drug tests and got away with it. Suspensions have also been given out to athletes to stop them from competing in the next Olympics, but a solution that can get out in front of the problem and stop athletes from doping in the first place is needed.</div>
<div><i><b>The Resurgence of Polio in Nigeria</b></i></div><div>Allie Westley</div><div>In July and August of 2016, multiple cases of polio were reported in Nigeria after two years without any new cases of polio, which was considered a major setback for the global campaign to eradicate polio. The resurgence of polio in Nigeria is related to the rise of the militant Islamic group Boko Haram which prevents citizens from receiving the polio vaccination, which is viewed as undesirable Western influence. Another cause of the revival of polio is block rejection, where citizens refuse vaccination as a leverage tool to force the government to improve the country’s infrastructure. The rise of Boko Haram and the lack of infrastructure, which both impacted the revival of polio, are caused by ethnic and religious conflicts within Nigeria that stem from divisive policies created during British colonization.</div> Here's why local communities bargain about vaccine compliance.
<div>China’s One Belt, One Road Initiative, also known as the Belt and Road Initiative or OBOR for short, was an ongoing macroeconomic cooperation and development strategy led by China. China cooperated with other Eurasian nations to strengthen their economic bonds through economic collaboration, such as by assisting infrastructure development and forming stronger trade relations. The Chinese government took this aggressive step towards further globalization to hopefully establish the nation’s powerful presence and spread its peaceful reputation in the international scene. China previously experienced a series of economic reforms in the 1980s under the leadership of Deng Xiaoping, which had a profound impact on China’s future foreign policies and encouraged the nation to embrace globalization. Recognizing the profits of international trade and benefits in spreading China’s reputation, China was actively engaged in large scale trade with Central Asia and Europe through the Silk Road since the Han dynasty. Also, Zheng He, who was dedicated to establish a mighty Chinese presence on a global scale, represented Ming China by sailing to foreign lands and spreading Chinese influences in the 14th century. These routes were later known as the Maritime Silk Road. In the first eight months in 2016, over four thousand engineering contracts that were worth over seventy billion USD in total have been signed in over sixty countries along the OBOR. Fifty-two economic cooperation zones and seventy thousand local jobs were created. Also, China had an exceptional collaboration with Ethiopia and Djibouti, where all sides contributed to the successful construction of a railroad. Locals lacked sufficient funding, thus Chinese entities provided over 70% of the investment. Thanks to the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank and Exim Bank of China, developing countries were capable of accessing necessary capital and embrace rapid infrastructure development.</div>
<div><b>Gender Inequality in the Middle East and North Africa</b></div><div>by Alise Pedersen</div><div><br></div><div> As a significant determinant of societal values and behavior, religion influences the rights, powers, and treatment of men and women throughout the globe. The world's two largest religions, Christianity and Islam, are concentrated in separate geographic regions that maintain distinct cultures and traditions. A comparison of countries from these areas, as well as those without meaningful religious affiliation, suggests that both religions contribute to gender hierarchies that favor males over females in terms of education, political influence, social freedom, and economic opportunity. Such a comparison involving literacy rates, secondary-education enrollment, wage gaps, marital ages, and occupied political offices also suggests that Islamic countries are more oppressive to women than their Christian and non-religious counterparts. Although regional histories, populations, and non-religious customs arguably contribute to these findings, Islamic teachings appear to play a meaningful role as well. Islam's primary religious text, the Quran, explicitly states, "Men are the maintainers of women” and further proclaims that two females are proportional to one male (Al-Nisa 4:11). While subject to different interpretations, the plain meaning of such texts helps create and perpetuate the male dominance in Islamic countries demonstrated through the comparison.With respect to all countries in the comparison, education was correlated to greater freedoms and opportunities for women. As such, societies seeking greater gender equality should promote access to knowledge and scholarship for women.</div>
<div><b><i>The Yemeni Civil War and the Crisis in Yemen </i></b></div><div>By Aidan Demian </div><div><br></div><div>Currently Yemen is in the midst of a civil war between the Sunni, Yemenis Government and the Shia, Houthi rebels. The current conflict between the two sides has engulfed the entire country of Yemen since roughly 2004 when Hussein al-Houthi sparked the Houthi movement of Zaidi Shia Islam in northern Yemen. After the president of Yemen was ousted from his role in 2011, the Houthis saw an opportunity to seize power and control of Yemen and thus a war between the Yemen government and Houthi rebels began. </div> Yemen is mired in conflict, with rebels holding the capital and Saudi Arabia bombing them, with American help. Our reporters witnessed the devastating effects.
<div><b><i>The Oppression of Christianity in China </i></b></div><div><b><i>Anna Dworetzky </i></b></div><div><br></div><div>The Chinese Communist Party has been taking aggressive action, such as forced removal of crosses and the demolition of churches, in order to oppress the practice of Christianity throughout China. Many modern churches, like the Falun Gong, have been forced to go over underground in order to avoid persecution. The CCPs fear of organized religion can be traced back to the Boxer and Taiping Rebellions, which used religion to gain support in their efforts to over-throw the government. </div> A government campaign to remove Christianity’s most potent symbol from view has left the countryside in one region littered with chopped-off crosses.
<div>Since 1950, China has occupied Tibet and ruled over their people. According to the Dalai Lama, the Chinese government makes life for Tibetans "hell on earth". Dating back to the Cultural Revolution, the Chinese have systematically decimated the cultural identity of the native Tibetans. The effort to eradicate their culture was embodied by their destruction of Tibet's Buddhist infrastructure, including monasteries and shrines. As a result, the Tibetan people have responded with fervent protest, including self immolation, in order to avoid cultural extinction.</div><div><br></div> The Chinese government has made life "hell on Earth" for Tibetans during the half-century since a failed uprising against its rule in 1959, the Dalai Lama said Tuesday.
<div><b>The Impact of Photojournalism </b></div><div>by Olivia Marwell</div><div><br></div><div>In 2011, Middle Eastern countries began to experience a wide wave of Arab Spring uprising; amidst these conflicts emerged the Syrian Civil War, which has since forced millions of Syrians to flee their homes in hopes of escaping the war’s severe violence. As a result, many refugees have died in their search for asylum, including a three year old boy named Aylan Kurdi. In September 2015, a harrowing picture of the toddler washed up on the beach stormed the media, bringing an overwhelming amount of attention to the horrors of the Syrian Refugee Crisis and Civil war. </div><div><br></div> The image of the drowned toddler has spread widely across social media.
<div><span style="font-size:16px;"><b>Turkey's Exhausting Zigzagging Between East and West</b></span></div><div><br></div><div>By: Patrick Morrison</div><div><br></div><div><br></div><div><br></div> "What is the moral of the story? Until a few weeks ago, the West was comfortably day-dreaming that, despite his foibles, Erdogan was a staunch U.S. ally and an eager EU candidate. After all, had he not, only recently, downed a Russian jet? Then,
<div>Women in ISIS - Lila Felser</div><div><br></div><div>Even though ISIS has been a threat to the world since it was formed in 1999, female jihadists in the organization haven't been seen as a threat despite the increase in women assembling to join the terrorists, ignoring ISIS's deeply misogynistic reputation and values.</div> ISIS is recruiting an army of AK-47-brandishing women from the West who are just as bloodthirsty as the men they are marrying. Calling themselves “lionesses of Allah,” they are thought to now numbe…
<div><b><i>Opium Production in Afghanistan</i></b></div><div>by Julian David</div><div><br></div><div>Although it has only recently become a staple of the country’s agriculture and economy, the current rate of opium production in Afghanistan is higher than it has ever been and it shows no signs of stopping. After the emergence of the Taliban as a national power, the money collected from the government’s taxes on the opium farmers has provided a source of income for the rise of the predominant Islamic political group. </div> UN Office on Drugs and Crime estimates rise of 43% in 2016, calling this a ‘worrying reversal’ in efforts to combat illegal drugs
<div><span style="font-size:16px;"><b>Nigerian Oil Crisis</b></span></div><div>Anne Overton</div><div>The Niger Delta is in political, economic, social, and environmental crisis because of the corruption in the government and misunderstanding between the multiple ethnic groups of Nigeria and international oil companies. This problem is worsened by the upwards of 240 different ethnic groups that have been awkwardly divided into only 3 different geographical groups.</div> Militants blew up strategic gas and crude pipelines belonging to Shell and Agip on Saturday in an increasingly fierce campaign that has chopped Nigeria's oil production in half, militants and residents said.
<div>Child Soldiers in South Sudan</div><div>by Fin Woodlief</div><div>Child soldiers are children ranging in age from 4 years old to their late teens, both boys and girls, who are used for fighting, and as cooks, porters, messengers, informants or spies in South Sudan. Ethnic differences such as the north being mostly Arab and Muslim, while the south is made up of ethnic sub-Saharan Africans who are Christian or Animist have defined the conflicts in South Sudan throughout history. The civil war in South Sudan using child soldiers is a reflection of the ethnic differences plaguing the country resulting from a history of civil conflicts.</div> Armies in the oil-rich and conflict-ridden north of South Sudan are still recruiting child soldiers, as the BBC's Tom Burridge reports.
<div>South Korea Election: Moon Jae-in Declared Winner</div><div>by: Noah Kim</div><div><br></div><div>Following the recent dismissal of corrupt President Park Geun-Hye, the people of Korea have elected Moon Jae-In, based on his promises for economic reform and his presence as a "clean candidate". The impeachment of former president Park Geun-Hye alerted the public eye to much of the corruption which exists in the Korean government. These illegal business negotiations rose to a significant role in the government in the wake of the Korean war. Very concerned with the opposition of communism, the post-war political structure based minimal focus on the state of the economy, and without proper guidance, the country began to rely on political incentives to help stimulate it. The war that caused these economic tensions in South Korea, emerged from a rich modern history of conflict in East Asia, beginning with European Imperialism in the 19th Century. After this, wars between Japan, China, and Russia sent the country into Japanese occupation, before its decolonization which left the country in a state of war, heavily influenced by the territories distributed to opposing Cold War powers. </div><div><br></div> South Korea's presidential election has been won by Moon Jae-in, a liberal who favors a more open policy toward North Korea.
<div><b>Domestic Violence Against Indian Women</b></div><div>Lauren Winters</div><div> India currently and historically have had high rates of child abuse, sexual/verbal/physical abuse against wives, infanticide, violence against widows, honor killings, and child brides. Family hierarchy is extremely prevalent in India, and influences both genders to fulfill societal norms: men being controlling, strong, and in charge, while women are expected to serve the men in the house and be passive. </div><div><br></div>
<div>Sex Trafficking and Prostitution in India </div><div>Tess McCamy-Miller</div><div><br></div><div> Sex trafficking and prostitution is highly prevalent in India. India is home to some of the biggest red-light districts in Asia, and possibly the world, and there are approximately 30 million women and girls in the sex trade today. Prostitution is currently legal in India, but sex trafficking, brothels, and underage prostitution remain illegal. Prostitution is considered to be the “oldest profession,” dating back to as far as historians can trace organized human society. Sex trafficking, however, appeared as a result of poverty, sexism and discrimination. Although prostitution was previously a religious institution, sex trafficking came after the social demonization of the trade. There are numerous ways in which locals have attempted to address this crisis, one of which is providing alternate ways of making money for women in the trade. Others attempt to educate young girls who are in danger of entering the trade, such as girls in places of poverty, or children of prostitutes, to give these girls a chance to succeed in other professions. I, however, believe that the most effective way to attack the problem is to educate young boys and teach them about equality and respect in order to attack the root cause of supply and demand. </div><div><br></div><div><br></div><div><br></div> The Durbar co-op's successes must be measured against vast injustices that foster prostitution everywhere. Last of four.
<div><b>The Proliferation of Chemical and Biological Weapons Following the Dissolution of the Soviet Union</b></div><div>Cooper Langner</div><div><br></div><div>Chemical and biological weapons proliferation has existed as a problem all around the world since before the cold war, but was exacerbated by the fall of the soviet union. When the Soviet Union dissolved there were several issues that allowed Chemical and Biological weapons to proliferate. There was a smattering of various production facilities across the U.S.S.R that ended up in various new sovereign countries following the dissolution, as well as the risk of unemployed scientists working for anyone who could pay. The repercussions of the proliferation that followed the end of the U.S.S.R. are widespread today. In Syria there is evidence that some of the chemical weapons that the government has used on its citizens were produced in Soviet Russia. In Uzbekistan it was only recently discovered that there was a chemical weapons production facility that was left over from the Soviet Union, and is now being deconstructed and its weapons destroyed.There are several approaches currently being undertaken by governments around the world to curb the spread of biological and chemical weapons, and to remove those that already exist. Treaties such as the BWC (biological weapons convention) and CWC (chemical weapons convention) ban the production, possession and use of the weapons for offensive reasons (though they are more nuanced than banning the possession outright). Lastly there are organizations such as the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons or the OPCW that exist for the purpose of monitoring countries that have signed the treaties and ensuring that existing stockpiles are destroyed.</div>
<div>Sex Trafficking in Thailand</div><div>Melissa Chow</div><div><br></div><div>Although sex trafficking is a global issue, it is considered to be especially prevalent in Thailand, a primary destination for sexual exploitation and forced labor. Impoverished families in rural areas who are unable to support themselves, believe that sending their children to cities will increase their chances of finding work. The result of this assumption is the trafficking of young people, who must involuntarily engage in different forms of forced sex labor.</div><div>While sex traffickers are the ones largely at fault for the exploitation of young victims, those who fund the sex trafficking industry by engaging in prostitution are considered responsible as well. Sex tourism is one of the most common ways that victims become exploited. These “tourists” are under the impression that the service sex trafficked victims provide is a small pension compared to the money tourists give them. However, they are unaware of the physical and psychological damage a lifetime of be trafficked has upon victims.</div>
<div><b>Thesis:</b> In the wake of the 2015 terror attacks on Paris, the decline of the European Union and the preceived threat of Muslim immigration, France’s political scene has made a drastic shift to the zhenophobic National Front, attempting to ban Muslim customs, immigration and exit the EU.</div> Labour’s election manifesto has proved controversial, with the Tories and the right-wing media claiming it would take us back to the 1970s. But it contains at least one excellent idea which is certainly not out-dated and which would in fact help to address a key problem in our post-financial-crisis world. Even setting aside the damage wrought by the 2008 crash, it’s clear the UK’s financial sector is not serving the real economy. The New Economics Foundation recently revealed that fewer than 10% of the total stock of UK bank loans are to non-financial and non-real estate businesses. The majority of their lending goes to other financial sector firms, insurance and pension funds, consumer finance, and commercial real estate. Labour’s proposed UK Investment Bank would be a welcome antidote to a financial system that is too often damaging or simply useless. There are many successful examples of public development banks in the world’s fastest-growing economies, such as China and Korea. However, the UK can look closer to home for a suitable model: the KfW in Germany (not exactly a country known for ‘disastrous socialist policies’). With assets of over €500bn, the KfW is the world’s largest state-owned development bank when its size is measured as a percentage of GDP, and it is an institution from which the UK can draw much-needed lessons if it wishes to create a financial system more beneficial to the real economy. Where does the money come from? Although KfW’s initial paid-up capital stems purely from public sources, it currently funds itself mainly through borrowing cheaply on the international capital markets with a federal government guarantee, AA+ rating, and safe haven status for its public securities. With its own high ratings, the UK could easily follow this model, allowing its bank to borrow very cheaply. These activities would not add to the long-run public debt either: by definition an investment bank would invest in projects that would stimulate growth. Aside from the obviously countercyclical role KfW played during the financial crisis, ramping up total business volume by over 40 per cent between 2007 and 2011 while UK banks became risk averse and caused a credit crunch, it also plays an important part in financing key sectors of the real economy that would otherwise have trouble accessing funds. This includes investment in research and innovation, and special programs for SMEs. Thanks to KfW, as well as an extensive network of regional and savings banks, fewer German SMEs report access to finance as a major problem than in comparator Euro area countries. The Conservatives have talked a great deal about the need to rebalance the UK economy towards manufacturing. However, a real industrial policy needs more than just empty rhetoric: it needs finance. The KfW has historically played an important role in promoting German manufacturing, both at home and abroad, and to this day continues to provide finance to encourage the export of high-value-added German products KfW works by on-lending most of its funds through the private banking system. This means that far from being the equivalent of a nationalisation, a public development bank can coexist without competing with the rest of the financial system. Like the UK, Germany has its share of large investment banks, some of which have caused massive instabilities. It is important to note that the establishment of a public bank would not have a negative effect on existing private banks, because in the short term, the UK will remain heavily dependent on financial services. The main problem with Labour’s proposal is therefore not that too much of the financial sector will be publicly owned, but too little. Its proposed lending volume of £250bn over 10 years is small compared to the KfW’s total financing commitments of €750 billion over the past 10 years. Although the proposal is better than nothing, in order to be effective a public development bank will need to have sufficient scale. Finally, although Brexit might make it marginally easier to establish the UK Investment Bank, because the country would no longer be constrained by EU State Aid Rules or the Maastricht criteria, it is worth remembering that KfW’s sizeable range of activities is perfectly legal under current EU rules. So Europe cannot be blamed for holding back UK financial sector reform to date - the problem is simply a lack of political will in the current government. And with even key architects of 1980s financial liberalisation, such as the IMF and the economist Jeffrey Sachs, rethinking the role of the financial sector, isn’t it time Britain did the same? Dr Natalya Naqvi is a research fellow at University College and the Blavatnik School of Government, University of Oxford, where she focuses on the role of the state and the financial sector in economic development
<div><span style="font-size:16px;">The Saudi Arabia Women's Rights Crisis</span></div><div>In 2004, an already controversial Saudi female news reporter came forward and displayed the results of her domestic abuse to the public. By breaking a long held taboo of secrecy around Saudi abuse, her completely open and public nature allowed for a rare look into the results of Sharia law on women's rights. Saudi Arabia is the only place in the world where Sharia law is the only legal code, meaning a code developed in 1200 C.E dictates the civilian code for the 21st century. This all started in the early 20th Century when the conflict began to form Saudi Arabia as an independent Islamic State. Throughout the last 100 years in which no progressive changes have been made to the legal code has lead to the most technologically advanced country being socially stuck in the 1200 CE. Though there is cultural significance in the Sharia Code, it does not belong to dictate civilian code in this era. Especially, as it is so opressive to women's rights, to begin addressing the inequality crisis in the nation, this is the first thing that needs to be reformed.</div> A TV presenter who says she was beaten by her husband allows Saudi papers to print pictures of her fractured face.
<div><span><b><i>China's Shift to a Two Child Policy</i></b></span></div><div><i>- Phoebe Zheng</i></div><div>China’s one child policy has shifted China’s demographics immensely as seen in the decline of their fertility rate, the uneven ratio between males and females due to society’s favoritism towards males, and their aging population. Women faced forced abortions and families who disobeyed the law were levied heavy fines as brutal consequences. After the Great Leap Forward in the 1960’s implemented by Mao Zedong, China was determined to make a change. In 1979 Deng Xiaoping instituted this policy through his fear that overpopulation would be detrimental to their country’s economic benefits, food supply, and overall health. The Committee of the Communist Party of China persuaded the rest of the population to teach them the importance of this new one child policy; however, currently the government’s aims is to help diversify China’s population by lifting this policy and allowing couples to have two children. This change in policy will not be affective because it has already affected over 1.3 billion people over the span of a couple of decades. There will not be any visible improvements for quite some time. </div>
<div>Deal Between North and South Korea Defies Their Mutual Disdain</div><div><br></div><div>Carter Hawthornthwaite</div><div>In August of 2015, a disagreement following the deaths of two South Korean soldiers from North Korean land mines escalated to a military standoff between the two nations. Occurring along the border between North and South Korea, this intense standoff was due to a South Korean desire for North Korea’s remorse at the two dead South Korean soldiers. Despite the firmness the two Korean leaders displayed, the standoff ended in peaceful agreement, with a positive, hopeful-looking future for the two nation’s relationship. </div> Some observers say the agreement that ended a military standoff opens up at least the possibility that the relationship could now improve to some degree.
<div style="text-align: center;"><span style="font-size:18px;"><b>Innocent Brides: Child Marriage in India</b></span></div><div style="text-align: right;"><span style="font-size:18px;">Cynthia Wu</span></div><div style="text-align: right;"><br></div><div> Since the Gupta Empire, which was founded in 320 CE, child marriage has been common in India; this ritual, which has lasted for approximately 1700 years, is defined as a formal marriage that involves a boy and/or a girl aging under 18. Although girls and boys have both been victims of child marriage, girls are disproportionately the most affected. Currently, there are 47% Indian women, in other words, 26,610,000 women, who were forced into marriage before reaching age 18; child brides are at a higher risk of sexual, physical and psychological violence throughout their lives, such as domestic abuse, early pregnancy, and forced sexual initiation. </div> RAJASTHAN, India -- Every year, millions of Indian girls are married as children. In some instances the brides are no more than 4 or 5 years old.  Child marriages are illegal in India, but the
<div><span style="font-size:18px;">China's Air Pollution Crisis</span></div><div>by Ella R.</div><div><br></div><div>China's crisis of smog and air pollution is creating an epidemic of lung cancer and health problems. China is the largest contributor to climate change and their industrial production is increasing exponentially. Out of their economic self-interests, the Chinese government is making minimal efforts to address this problem that, left unattended, is expediting the heating and destruction of our Earth.</div>
<div>Since its creation in 988 AD, the Russian Orthodox Church, or the Moscow Patriarchate, has been preaching it’s ideals of heteronormativity, prompting Peter the Great’s sodomy laws, Stalin’s article 121, and Putin’s Anti-Gay propaganda law. Currently, the Protecting Children from Information Advocating for a Denial of Traditional Family Values law, known as the Anti-Gay propaganda law to English media, is an extension of the dangerous and destructive homophobic tendencies seen throughout Russia’s history. </div> The skies are darkening for many activists in Eastern Europe and Central Asia, where the Russian Federation is leading the way on legislation aimed at silencing LGBTQI+ voices.
<div><b><i>Kosovo Independence Issue</i></b></div><div>Viktor Rajkovic</div><div><br></div><div>The importance of Kosovo to Serbia and Albania from the 12th century to the present continues to prolong the issue of Kosovo’s independence. The current issue is prominent because it stems from the religious and cultural importance of Kosovo to Serbia and its people. It also encompasses issues which came as a result of outside powers interfering in Kosovo and the changes of power over Kosovo through the 1900’s and early 2000’s. Finally, the movement of Albanians into Kosovo over the past hundred years has led to an immense growth in the conflict between the nations of Serbia and Albania.</div><div><br></div>
<div>Deforestation in Indonesia </div><div>By Anna Weisel </div><div><br></div><div>Indonesia is the world’s largest producer of palm oil, a highly saturated vegetable found in almost half of all packaged foods. Although palm oil plantations are essential to the Indonesian economy, providing employment to 2-3 million people, trees are cut down and burned in order to create the plantations. Due to the high amount of carbon in the trees, burning the rainforest results in an increase of carbon dioxide in the air, making Indonesia the third largest contributor to greenhouse gas emissions. Also, cutting down the forest destroys the habitat of more than 300,000 different animals living in the jungles of Borneo and Sumatra Indonesia.</div>
<div><b>Indonesian Deforestation</b></div><div>By: Samantha Beaton</div><div>Indonesia, a tropical country in Southeast Asia, has been the target to deforestation for palm oil plantations, ever since the early eighteenth century. Dutch colonization concentrated in the export-based economic center of Java, and eventually spread into the Outer Islands where many indigenous tribes lived; however, this process of transmigration moved migrants to these remote islands and in the process, hegemonized unique cultures. The extensive growth of industrialized Western nations pressured these colonies to rapidly produce industrial materials, predominantly palm oil. As the global demand for palm oil and biofuels grow, the rights of indigenous peoples are ignored.</div>
<div>While many of the countries in the European Union wanted to stay, a few of the countries were dissatisfied with the European Union's state. The main issues Spain, U.K., France and Greece hated about the EU were terrorism, migrations, lack of economic stability throughout the union and rising populist governments. Although these issues were clearly defined and known, the fatal issue was the political system of the union which, rendered any chances of success useless. The fear and dissatisfaction for the EU’s economy and power comes from events like the 2008 economic crisis and the crimea incident which both clearly show the issues with the union's stability. The union was built on the founding ideas of stability, peace and prosperity after WWII and during the cold war. Based on the recent events, much of the population had become fearful and skeptical of the EU’s strength and stability as it’s initial goal seemingly failed. The union had come up with a few paths to obtain peace and prosperity again. First was to create a tiered system within the union where countries that want close connection with other countries can have that while others that want more national dominion can follow that path. Another was to create a european military which could protect the countries of the union while attempting to maintain prosperity and peace. However another option had also come up within each country, populist groups which aim to take control of their nations and create votes to leave the union all together.</div><div><br></div><div>By Oliver Freeman</div>
<div>Why is North Korea developing nuclear weapons?</div><div>William Bartron Morris</div><div>Recently, North Korea has been conducting test of both nuclear weapons and ballistic missiles. Although they have been conducting many tests, very few have been completely successful. The hatred of the west and the US comes from the Korean War in the 50’s where the United States fought North Korea and ended roughly where they began, in a draw. And recently, newly elected president Trump has shown interest in conflicting with North Korea so they want to become a nuclear power capable of competent with world superpowers like the US. North Korea needs to follow the regulations of the UN about their nuclear program. Additionally, this issue is not only the United States’ issue, but a global one, which will require more action from all countries and the UN especially to halt North Korea's nuclear program.</div><div><br></div><div><br></div> Kim Jong Un tests another missile
<div><b><i>Radical Islam's Foothold in Indonesia</i></b></div><div style="text-align: center;">Nicholas David</div><div>Recent elections in Indonesia have revealed the underlying Islamic radicalism in the country, which has a current Muslim population of 87%. Since 1993, every major Al-Qaeda attack has been linked to Southeast Asia, and Indonesia's own Islamic Terrorist group, Jemaah Islamiyah, links back to Indonesia's Independence in 1949. </div>
<div><b>Deforestation in the Amazon</b></div><div><b>Christopher Nolan</b></div><div> Deforestation is the destruction and clearing of forests so the process of industrialization is no longer obstructed by natural barriers. I am writing about deforestation in the amazon, the benefits and negatives, and whether those effects prove to be a deterrent or encouragement. Although there are many conferences, that include the world, stressing the importance of dealing with the impacts of deforestation, Brazil's government and other beneficiaries of deforestation still seeks to explore and grow from the financial benefits it allows.</div><div><br></div> A decade after the “Save the Rainforest” movement captured the world’s imagination, Cargill and other food giants are pushing deeper into the wilderness.
<div><span style="font-size:16px;">Moon Jae-in of South Korea and China Move to Soothe Tensions</span></div><div><br></div><div>President Moon Jae-in spoke with his Chinese counterpart, Xi Jinping, and said he would send a delegation to Beijing to discuss friction over a U.S. antimissile system.</div><div><br></div> President Moon Jae-in spoke with his Chinese counterpart, Xi Jinping, and said he would send a delegation to Beijing to discuss friction over a U.S. antimissile system.
<div>Annexation of Crimea</div><div>In 2014, unmarked russian troops swarmed the Crimean peninsula, taking control of important buildings and military bases. This prompted a vote among Crimean citizens, deemed rigged by the UN, to declare independence from Ukraine and join Russia. Since then, Crimea has remained a contested region with constant conflict over who truly controls the region. Crimea hosts a multitude of populations and ethnic groups, as a result of the many times it was conquered, all of whom have been prosecuted or favored by a variety of groups, creating many different allegiances. Compounding this is the fact that following Soviet collapse, the Russians lost large swaths of territory which they consider to be rightfully theirs. Lastly, Crimea has through history had strong cultural resonance in Russia as a vacation or retirement location. The solution to Crimea is not simple as Russia will likely be highly unwilling to relinquish Crimea. As of now, the primary retribution has been sanctions placed on Russia by foreign countries. The best solution would perhaps be to have Russia either pay for Crimea, or lease it, with the promise that they will not encroach further upon Ukraine’s sovereignty.</div><div><br></div> Crimeans are voting on whether to join Russia
<div><b>Amazon Deforestation and the History of Brazilian Environmentalism and Economic Policy:</b></div><div><br></div><div>The Massive and rapid deforestation of the Brazilian Amazon has been driven by desperate economic necessity and widespread corruption. Despite growing ecological protection movements, the radical programs of the military government and persistent economic crises throughout the 1970's-90's have caused mass deforestation and detrimental environmental spending cutbacks.</div><div><br></div><div><b>Rowan Karpa-Wilson</b></div> Activists and experts agree that such depredation has been in large part possible to the loosening of the nation’s environmental laws.

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