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<div><span style="font-size:16px;"><b>High School Grad. Rate: </b></span></div><div><i>(the ability to produce and acquire knowledge)</i></div><div><br></div><div><b><i>WHY: </i></b> Educational attainment is closely tied to economic mobility and health outcomes, and a high school diploma is an important milestone for knowledge and skills.</div><div><br></div><div><b><span style="font-size:16px;">Shelby Co. School District: 79%</span></b></div><div>In the Shelby County School District <b>FOUR OUT OF FIVE (79%) </b>high school seniors -- both black and white students -- graduated on time. </div><div><br></div><div><i>(Source: Tennessee Department of Education 2015-2016)</i></div>
<div><span style="font-size:16px;"><b>Employment:</b></span><i>(the ability to work)</i></div><div><br></div><div><b><i>WHY: </i></b> Employment is an important indicator for income and wealth for individuals and for regional economic growth. Employment is tied to better physical and mental health outcomes, and better academic performance in children.</div><div><br></div><div><span style="font-size:16px;"><b>City of Memphis: 56%</b></span></div><div>In Memphis, 56% of adults are currently employed, which matches the national trend. However, this ranges from 53% for Blacks adults to 61% for White adults. </div><div><i>(American Community Survey, 2011-2015)</i></div>
<div><span style="font-size:16px;"><b>Social Connections: </b></span></div><div><i>(the ability to form connections and cultivate ethical commitments for the good of one’s community)</i></div><div><br></div><div><b><i>WHY: </i></b> Neighborhood institutions, such as churches and volunteer clubs, and public spaces outside of home and work form the civic backbone of a community. </div><div><br></div><div><b><span style="font-size:16px;">City of Memphis: 113</span></b></div><div>Memphis has <b>113.4 non-profit institutions</b> per 10,000 individuals, more than TWICE the national rate. There is also a strong philanthropic community that supports the work of these organizations.</div><div><br></div><div><i>(IRS Tax Exempt Organizations, 2016)</i></div>
<div><span style="font-size:16px;"><b>Built Environment:</b></span></div><div><i>(the ability to have appealing neighborhoods)</i></div><div><br></div><div><b><i>WHY: </i></b>Communities with current residents have greater property care, more engaged communities, lower criminal activities, and a lower impact on local government to deal with vacant and decaying properties. Population decline, oversupply of housing, and economic downturn all impact neighborhood vacancy rates.</div><div><br></div><div><span style="font-size:16px;"><b>City of Memphis: 16%</b></span></div><div>In Memphis, <b>ONE IN SIX </b>residential properties is currently vacant, which is similar to the national average.</div><div><i>(American community survey, 2011-2015)</i></div>
<div><span style="font-size:16px;"><b>Physical Health: Obesity</b></span></div><div><i>(the ability to be healthy)</i></div><div><br></div><div><b><i>WHY: </i></b> Obesity is linked to a myriad of physical and mental health risks and outcomes. But it is also connected set of neighborhood factors including violent crime, access to health food, suburban sprawl, and toxic stress. Addressing obesity in a community requires both individual and neighborhood-level interventions.</div><div><br></div><div><span style="font-size:16px;"><b>City of Memphis: 29% Obese</b></span></div><div>In Memphis, <b>THREE OUT OF TEN</b> adults (29%) are considered obese, which matches the national rates of obesity. </div><div><i>(CDC 500 Cities Project, 2014)</i></div>
<div><span style="font-size:16px;"><b>Safety: Crime Rate</b></span></div><div><i>(the ability to have safe neighborhoods)</i></div><div><br></div><div><b><i>WHY: </i></b> Violent crime has a tremendous impact on a community and numerous negative outcomes. Exposure to violence encourages people to stay inside, thereby increasing obesity and reducing social connections within a community. In addition, it increases stress (often "toxic stress"), directly impacts mental health, and, in children, reduces their academic performance.</div><div><br></div><div><span style="font-size:16px;"><b>City of Memphis: 164 per 10,000</b></span></div><div>The crime rate in the city of Memphis is almost <b>4 TIMES</b> the national average or 163.6 per 10,000 residents.</div>
<div><span style="font-size:16px;"><b>Residential Inclusion: </b></span></div><div><i>(the ability to be included in the wider community)</i></div><div><br></div><div><b><i>WHY:</i></b> This <i>Residential Inclusion </i>indicator (ratio of low-income to high-income homes) is one lens for showing concentrated poverty. <b> Concentrated poverty </b>compounds the problems faced by individuals with limited economic resources, including independent effects for physical and mental health, exposure to violence, and limited access to healthy food and environments. While moving to mixed income neighborhoods has had mixed results, it does allow access to greater resources, better schools, and safer environments. </div><div><br></div><div><span style="font-size:16px;"><b>City of Memphis: 2.8:1 ratio</b></span></div><div>As a whole city, Memphis has <b>2.8 TIMES </b>more households earning less than $25,000 than households earning over $100,000 -- this shows a higher concentration of low-income households in the city. Additionally, there are <b>6.8 TIMES</b> more low-income Black households than high income households. The opposite is true for White households where there are <b>1.2 TIMES </b>more high income households than low-income ones. </div><div><i>(American Community Survey, 2011-2015).</i></div>
<div><span style="font-size:16px;"><b>Cultural Vibrancy: </b></span></div><div><i>(the ability to produce and enjoy cultural activities)</i></div><div><br></div><div><b><i>WHY: </i></b>Arts and culture organizations can revitalize communities, reinforce collective identity, and preserve culture, history, and traditions. </div><div><br></div><div><span style="font-size:16px;"><b>City of Memphis: 3.3 per 10,000</b></span></div><div>Memphis has just <b>3.3 arts and cultural institutions per 10,000 people. </b>This is slightly less than the national average of 5.1. It is worth noting that the rich music culture in Memphis, which centers in largely for-profit clubs and studios, is missed when considering just the arts and culture non-profits in the city. </div><div><i>(IRS Tax Exempt Organizations, 2016)</i></div>
<div><span style="font-size:16px;"><b>Stable Homes: </b></span></div><div><i>(the ability to form and have stable homes)</i></div><div><br></div><div><b><i>WHY: </i></b>Residential stability encourages social connections within neighborhoods, reduces crime, and increases neighborhood advocacy. At the individual level, stability is associated with higher academic performance in children, and better mental and physical health for adults and children.</div><div><br></div><div><span style="font-size:16px;"><b>City of Memphis: 19%</b></span></div><div>In the city of Memphis, <b>ONE IN FIVE</b> individuals (19%) has moved in the last year. This is slightly higher than the national average of 15%. </div><div><i>(American Community Survey, 2011-2015)</i></div>
<div><span style="font-size:16px;"><b>Cost-Burdened Households: </b></span></div><div><i>(the ability to afford the costs of living)</i></div><div><br></div><div><b><i>WHY:</i></b> For many households, housing is the first and largest expense. Households that spend more than 30% of their income on shelter spend less on food, medical care, retirement, and education. </div><div><br></div><div><span style="font-size:16px;"><b>City of Memphis: 43% </b></span></div><div>In Memphis, roughly <b>TWO OUT OF FIVE </b>households (43%) spends more than 30% of their income on housing.</div><div><i>(American Community Survey, 2011-2015)</i></div>
<div><span style="font-size:16px;"><b>Child Economic Insecurity:</b></span></div><div><i>(the ability to grow up with basic needs met) </i></div><div><br></div><div><b><i>WHY:</i></b> Children who grow up in economic insecurity struggle with inadequate nutrition, anxiety, and impaired intellectual, physical, and emotional development. Since childhood is the foundation of adult life, adults who grew up in poor economic conditions have lower levels of education, lower lifetime earnings, increased rates of health certain health problems, among other outcomes. </div><div><br></div><div><span style="font-size:16px;"><b>City of Memphis: 68%</b></span></div><div>In Memphis, <b>SEVEN OUT OF TEN (68%) </b>live in economic insecurity (below 2 TIMES the federal poverty line). This is noticeably higher than national rate of 57%. </div>
<div><span style="font-size:16px;"><b>Low Birthweight:</b></span></div><div><i>(the ability to have a healthy start in life) </i></div><div><br></div><div><b><i>WHY:</i></b> Infants are very susceptible to the conditions of the neighborhoods into which they are born: lack of access to healthy food, concentrated poverty, poor housing quality, exposure to violence, and other economic factors can have an impact on an infant’s birthweight. Infants born below 5 pounds, 8 oz are more likely to struggle with behavioral, emotional, social, cognitive and physical challenges.</div><div><br></div><div><span style="font-size:16px;"><b>City of Memphis: 12%</b></span></div><div>In the city of Memphis, about 1 in 8 infants (12%) is born with low birthweight, compared to 1 in 12 (8%) across the country. </div><div><i>(source: KidsCount 2014)</i></div>
<div><span style="font-size:16px;"><b>Air Quality:</b></span></div><div>(the ability to breathe and live in healthy environments)</div><div><br></div><div><b><i>WHY:</i></b> Air quality is an important part of a health environment, linked to indoor air, water quality, crop yields, and violent crime, among many factors. In humans, it is tied to respiratory and cardiovascular disease and dementia. While there are many ways of measuring air quality in a given locality, the <b>Air Quality Index (AQI)</b> measures 5 different air pollutants regulated under the Clean Air Act: ground-level ozone, particle pollution, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide and gives one cumulative value that represents the safety of the air quality. </div><div><br></div><div><span style="font-size:16px;"><b>Greater Memphis Area (MSA): 105 days</b></span></div><div>In 2016, the Memphis metro area had 261 good air quality days, 97 days where the air quality was deemed moderate, which is considered acceptable but poses a risk for sensitive population such as children or the elderly, plus 8 days considered unhealthy for all populations. Their most common significant air pollutant was ozone. This shows considerable improvement from 72 unhealthy days in 2005. Nashville, in comparison, reported 131 moderate and/or unhealthy days in 2016. </div><div><i>(source: EPA, 2016)</i></div>
<div><span style="font-size:16px;"><b>Race/Ethnicity:</b></span></div><div><br></div><div><b><i>WHY:</i></b><i> </i>Due to legacies of occupational and educational exclusion, redlining, immigration, and discrimination, racial and ethnic groups have varying trajectories for education, health, employment, and other life outcomes.</div><div><br></div><div><b><span style="font-size:16px;">City of Memphis: </span></b></div><div>The City of Memphis is <b>63% Black and 27% White.</b> Despite their minority status, White residents of Memphis have better outcomes on concentrated poverty, income, employment, and educational attainment than the Black majority. </div><div><i>(American Community Survey, 2011-2015)</i></div> s4.thingpic.com
<div><span style="font-size:16px;"><b>Educational Attainment:</b></span></div><div><br></div><div><b><i>WHY:</i></b><i> </i> While high school graduation is an important milestone, it is often insufficient training to secure stable and self-supporting employment. </div><div><br></div><div><span style="font-size:16px;"><b>City of Memphis: </b></span></div><div>Roughly half of the city’s adults (47%, 25 years or older) have some post-high school education, including training programs (23%) or a four-year degree or more (25%). As with many things in Memphis, it is not evenly distributed. Half of Black residents have some post-secondary education compared to 7 in 10 white residents. Furthermore, White residents are almost THREE TIMES more likely to have a four-year degree than Black residents. </div><div><i>(American Community Survey, 2011-2015)</i></div>
<div><span style="font-size:16px;"><b>Foreign-Born Residents</b></span></div><div><br></div><div><b><i>WHY:</i></b><i> </i>Foreign-born residents may face additional challenges, such as language barriers, institutional distrust, concerns about personal safety, and lack of knowledge about community services and practices. </div><div><br></div><div><span style="font-size:16px;">City of Memphis: </span></div><div>In the city of Memphis, just 6% of residents were born outside the country. This is roughly half the national rate. (American Community Survey, 2011-2015)</div>
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