Sub Sahara Africa
<div><span style="font-size:16px;">Wild Life</span></div><div>The Seychelles have attracted many tourists because of their clear waters and coral reefs, so it’s a hot destination for divers.</div><div>Botswana, Namibia, South Africa, and Zimbabwe have become common tourist destinations for people who want to see animals, especially lions, leopards, elephant, buffalo, rhinos, which are known as the “Big Five”, </div><div><br></div><div>In addition, South Africa has also become a hotspot for people who want to swim with sharks.</div><div><br></div><div>Click the picture to watch a video about the wild life in Africa.</div><div><br></div> OneLogin
<div><span style="font-size:16px;">Madagascar</span></div><div><br></div><div><span style="font-size:16px;">Click the picture and watch to learn more about the unique diversity of Madagascar.</span></div><div><br></div> OneLogin
<div><span style="font-size:16px;">Life in the Sahara</span></div><div>The Sahara Desert has three main types of landforms: ergs, regs, and hamadas. ERGS are great seas of sand with tall sand dunes, which can rise over 400 feet! </div><div><br></div><div>The BEDOUIN are desert nomads who live and navigate through the desert. The Bedouin are a <b>pastoral people</b> which means that they herd and graze camels, goats, sheep, and cattle. They move depending on the season spending winters when there is some rain deep in the desert and migrating to more secure water sources during the hot summer months.</div><div><br></div><div>How do they adapt to life in the desert?</div>
<div><span style="font-size:16px;">Mali Empire</span></div><div>The trading kingdom of Mali came after Ghana. Mali grew rich from the gold-for-salt trade. Its rulers conquered neighboring lands and built an empire.</div><div><br></div><div>The empire of Mali reached its height under the emperor Mansa Musa. The city of Timbuktu, which was already an important trading post, became a center for Islamic culture. Mansa Musa went on a historic pilgrimage to Mecca. By the time Mansa Musa returned home, the Islamic world knew there was a new and powerful Islamic kingdom south of the Sahara.</div> Google Drive is a free way to keep your files backed up and easy to reach from any phone, tablet, or computer. Start with 15GB of Google storage – free.
<div><span style="font-size:16px;">The Sahel</span></div><div>The Sahara Desert is growing due to <b>desertification,</b> or the spreading of DESERT conditions. Between the desert and the grasslands, there is an area of land known as the Sahel. This area receives about 4 to 8 inches of rain each year. Many <b>nomadic herders </b>live in the Sahel, moving from place to place to find food and water for their animals.</div><div><br></div><div>Click the image to watch a video about the Sahel.</div> Google Drive is a free way to keep your files backed up and easy to reach from any phone, tablet, or computer. Start with 15GB of Google storage – free.
<div><span style="font-size:16px;">Traditional vs. Modern</span></div><div>In Sub-Saharan Africa, one can see a struggle between modern and traditional values. </div><div><br></div><div>In West Africa, many people wear western clothing, including business suits to work. In order to retain their culture though, they have instituted “Traditional/Tribal Fridays” in which they wear traditional clothing. Many people also wear traditional clothing on formal occasions. </div><div><br></div><div>In countries like Kenya, Uganda, Malawi, and Zambia, clinics who are close to running out of medicine text for more. </div><div><br></div><div>The Maasai are semi-nomadic tribesmen in Kenya and Tanzania. Cattle is extremely important to their livelihood. Flies are even considered a sign of wealth because the more cattle you have, the more flies are around. While they maintain their traditional lifestyle, they have are also started to use mobile banking with cell phones to bank the proceeds from selling cattle.</div>
<div><span style="font-size:16px;">Apartheid</span></div><div>Laws in South Africa limited the political rights of black Africans and set up separate parks, beaches, and other public places. This set of laws was called apartheid. </div><div><br></div><div>To learn more about this, click the photo and read the excerpt from the “Discovering World Geography” textbook.</div><div><br></div> OneLogin
<div>Look at the infographic to uncover the devastating effect that way has had on South Sudan.</div>
<div><span style="font-size:16px;">Food and Healthcare</span></div><div>Twenty-one of the world’s thirty poorest countries are in Africa. Nearly half of the Africans in these countries live on less than $1 per day. Poverty makes survival a challenge. </div><div><br></div><div>In recent years, major famines have occurred due to natural causes (droughts, insect plagues, etc), as well as human causes (war). In 2004, an estimated 200 million Africans were malnourished. The means that people suffer from an improper or insufficient diet. It most often refers to undernourishment, which means that they do not have enough food to lead a healthy life. Lack of food has slowed the growth of about a third of all African children. </div><div><br></div><div>In many countries, there are few doctors and many of the health centers are under-funded.</div><div><br></div> OneLogin
<div><span style="font-size:16px;">Economy</span></div><div>All of the countries in Africa are developing, or middle income countries. African countries have had difficulty developing because of issues including population growth, healthcare, and political problems. </div><div><br></div><div>There are many natural resources though. For example, they have 70% of the world’s diamonds, 60% of the world’s gold, and 40% of the world’s water power. </div><div><br></div><div>Oil is also a major commodity, as are solar and wind power.</div><div><br></div><div>Despite this, many people work at the primary and secondary levels of economic production. More than half of Africa’s farmland is used for subsistence farming, where farmers are raising just enough food to feed their families. Other farmers engage in commercial farming.</div><div><br></div>
<div><span style="font-size:16px;">Physical Geography</span></div><div><br></div><div><span style="font-size:16px;">Click on the map and watch this video to learn more about the unique physical features of Africa.</span></div><div><br></div> OneLogin
<div><span style="font-size:16px;">Songhai Empire</span></div><div>After Mansa Musa’s death, Songhai replaced Mali as the most powerful West African empire. A well-trained army and a navy that patrolled the Niger River made Songhai the largest of the three trading empires. Songhai now controlled the region’s trade routes, had salt mines in the Sahara, and sought to turn their empire into a center for Islamic learning. The Songhai Empire eventually fell to the Moroccans who seized the salt mines and destroyed the empire by the end of the 1500s (Discovering World Geography, p. 679).</div> Google Drive is a free way to keep your files backed up and easy to reach from any phone, tablet, or computer. Start with 15GB of Google storage – free.
<div><span style="font-size:16px;">Ghana Empire</span></div><div>The Ghana Empire was a powerful kingdom in West Africa during the Middle Ages. It had grown wealthy from its control of the gold trade. As the empire grew wealthy, it conquered many of its neighbors, including gold-rich lands to the south. Ghana built a strong trade with Muslim countries in North Africa.In the A.D. 1000s, the Almoravids conquered Ghana. Almoravid rule over Ghana lasted only a few years, but that was long enough to damage the trade that kept the empire alive. With the arrival of so many Almoravids, there was now a larger population to feed. The dry climate could not support the sudden increase in agriculture, and this resulted in desertification: Land that at one time was fertile became desert. Ghana became weak, and its conquered neighbors began to break away (Discovering World Geography, p. 678).</div><div><br></div><div>Click the image to watch a video about the Ghana Empire.</div> Google Drive is a free way to keep your files backed up and easy to reach from any phone, tablet, or computer. Start with 15GB of Google storage – free.
<div><span style="font-size:16px;">Watch the scramble for Africa and the Berlin Conference and then answer the questions.</span></div><div><br></div> OneLogin

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