Stonehenge Landcape - Interactive Image
<div>Stonehenge</div><div><br></div><div>Stonehenge is a prehistoric monument in Wiltshire, England, 2 miles (3 km) west of Amesbury and 8 miles (13 km) north of Salisbury. Stonehenge's ring of standing stones are set within earthworks in the middle of the most dense complex of Neolithic and Bronze Age monuments in England, including several hundred burial mounds.</div><div><br></div><div>Archaeologists believe it was constructed from 3000 BC to 2000 BC. The surrounding circular earth bank and ditch, which constitute the earliest phase of the monument, have been dated to about 3100 BC. Radiocarbon dating suggests that the first bluestones were raised between 2400 and 2200 BC, although they may have been at the site as early as 3000 BC.</div><div><br></div><div>Stonehenge has been a legally protected Scheduled Ancient Monument since 1882 when legislation to protect historic monuments was first successfully introduced in Britain. The site and its surroundings were added to UNESCO's list of World Heritage Sites in 1986. Stonehenge is owned by the Crown and managed by English Heritage; the surrounding land is owned by the National Trust.</div>
<div>Stonehenge Cursus</div><div><br></div><div>The Stonehenge Cursus (sometimes known as the Greater Cursus) is a large Neolithic cursus monument on Salisbury plain, near to Stonehenge in Wiltshire, England. It is roughly 3 kilometres (1.9 mi) long and between 100 metres (330 ft) and 150 metres (490 ft) wide. Excavations in 2007 dated the construction of the earthwork to between 3630 and 3375 BCE, several hundred years before the earliest phase of Stonehenge in 3000 BC. The cursus, along with adjacent barrows and the nearby 'Lesser Cursus' are part of the National Trust's Stonehenge Landscape property, and is within the Stonehenge and Avebury World Heritage Site.</div>
<div><b>Wood Henge</b></div><div><br></div><div>Woodhenge is a Neolithic Class II henge and timber circle monument located in the Stonehenge World Heritage Site in Wiltshire, England. It is 2 miles (3.2 km) north-east of Stonehenge in the parish of Durrington, just north of Amesbury.</div><div><br></div><div>The site consists of six concentric oval rings of postholes, the outermost being about 43 by 40 metres (141 by 131 ft) wide. They are surrounded first by a single flat-bottomed ditch, 2.4 metres (7.9 ft) deep and up to 12 metres (39 ft) wide, and finally by an outer bank, about 10 metres (33 ft) wide and 1 metre (3.3 ft) high. </div><div><br></div><div>With an overall diameter measuring 110 metres (360 ft), the site had a single entrance to the north-east.Woodhenge is a Neolithic Class II henge and timber circle monument located in the Stonehenge World Heritage Site in Wiltshire, England. It is 2 miles (3.2 km) north-east of Stonehenge in the parish of Durrington, just north of Amesbury.</div>
<div>Durrington Walls</div><div><br></div><div>Durrington Walls is the site of a large Neolithic settlement and later henge enclosure located in the Stonehenge World Heritage Site. It lies 2 miles (3.2 km) north-east of Stonehenge in the parish of Durrington, just north of Amesbury.</div><div><br></div><div>Between 2004 and 2006, excavations on the site by a team led by the University of Sheffield revealed seven houses. It has been suggested that the settlement may have originally had up to 1000 houses and perhaps 4,000 people, if the entire enclosed area was used. The period of settlement was probably short, between 15 and 45 years starting sometime between 2525 and 2470 BC.</div><div><br></div><div>What visibly remains of Durrington Walls today is the 'walls' of the henge monument – in fact the eroded remains of the inner slope of the bank and the outer slope of the internal ditch. This now appears as a ridge surrounding a central basin. On the eastern side the separate ditch and bank are much more discernible although badly eroded by ploughing. Originally the ditch was some 5.5 metres (18 ft) deep, 7 metres (23 ft) wide at its bottom and 18 metres (59 ft) wide at the top. The bank was in some areas 30 metres (98 ft) wide. </div>
<div>Lesser Cursus</div><div><br></div><div>750m northwest of the western end of the Stonehenge Cursus lies the Lesser Cursus, a 400m long and 60m wide earthwork oriented west-southwest and east-northeast. Although its banks and ditches survived into the 20th century, ploughing since World War II has levelled it and it is only visible today as a cropmark. The Lesser Cursus has been a Scheduled Monument since 1925,and was excavated in 1983 as part of the Stonehenge Environs Project. They discovered that the original earthworks was only half its current length, but was then extended. They also confirmed, as had previously been suspected, that it had no eastern terminal. The ditches and banks simply stop leaving the eastern end open. The project also discovered several red deer antler picks that have dated the monument to approximately 3000 BCE.</div>
<div>Stonehenge Avenue</div><div><br></div><div>Stonehenge Avenue is an ancient avenue on Salisbury plain, Wiltshire, UK. It is part of the Stonehenge, Avebury and Associated Sites UNESCO World Heritage Site. Discovered in the 18th century, it measures nearly 3 kilometers, connecting Stonehenge with the River Avon. It was built during the Stonehenge 3 period of 2600 to 1700 BCE.</div><div><br></div><div>Along some of its length The Avenue is aligned with the sunrise of the summer solstice, suggesting a time of most frequent use. In 2013 a section of A344 road was closed, which had cut through the Avenue close to Stonehenge. After the road surface was removed, it was shown that although the Avenue's banks had been sliced off, the filled in ditches were still in evidence, demonstrating that the Avenue had indeed connected right through to the stone circle.</div>
<div>Lake Down Burrows</div><div><br></div><div>A Bronze Age round barrow cemetery survives as earthworks on Lake Down. The cemetery comprises 10 round barrows; including bowl barrows, pond barrows and disc barrows. The cemetery was surveyed at a scale of 1:1000 in May 2009 as part of English Heritage's Stonehenge WHS Landscape Project. It was also included in the Stonehenge WHS Mapping Project, using aerial photographs. Several of the barrows were excavated by Mr Edward Duke of Lake House in the early 19th century, although it is difficult to relate his notes to the individual barrows</div><div><br></div><div>Evans noted the following as coming from the Lake Barrows:- stone axe, barbed and tanged arrowhead, remains of a necklace with gold studs; an awl; bronze dagger; chisel; whetstones associated with bronze daggers, and a possible pair of earrings.</div>
<div>Normanton Down Barrows</div><div><br></div><div>Normanton Down is a Neolithic and Bronze Age barrow cemetery located about 0.6 miles (1 km) south of Stonehenge in Wiltshire, England. The burials date from between 2600 and 1600 BC and consist of a Neolithic long barrow and some 40 or more Bronze Age round barrows, sited along the crest of a low ridge.</div><div><br></div><div>Almost all of these barrows are believed to be from the Bronze Age, but several features, including a Long barrow, are earlier, dating to neolithic times. </div> 9020
<div>Vespasian's Camp</div><div><br></div><div>Vespasian's Camp is an Iron Age Hillfort in the town of Amesbury, Wiltshire, England. It is located less than 2 miles (3 km) from the Neolithic and Bronze Age site of Stonehenge and was built on a hill next to the Stonehenge Avenue.</div><div><br></div><div>Although the Roman general Vespasian campaigned through Wessex after the Roman invasion of Britain, there is no evidence to suggest he came to this hillfort or had any military base here. The name was given to the site by William Camden, who during the Elizabethan era toured the area and gave the hill its romanticised name.</div><div><br></div><div>The hill on which Vespasian's Camp stands was used during the Neolithic era, as indicated by the Neolithic pits found near the centre. Excavations suggest that the hill may have been part of the Stonehenge ritual landscape during this period. The first building of the hillforts banks is believed to have occurred during the late Bronze Age (between 1100BC-800BC) with some later building in the early Iron Age (700BC-350BC). </div>
<div>Bluestonehenge</div><div><br></div><div>"Bluestonehenge" or "Bluehenge" (also known as "West Amesbury Henge") is a prehistoric henge and stone circle monument that was discovered by the Stonehenge Riverside Project about 1 mile (1.6 km) south-east of Stonehenge in Wiltshire, England. All that currently remains of the site is the ditch of the henge and a series of stone settings, none of which is visible above ground.</div><div><br></div><div>The monument has been tentatively dated to between about 3000 and 2400 BC, although radiocarbon dating of antler tools found at the site has only provided an approximate date of 2469 to 2286 BC for the dismantling of the stones. Tests on an antler pick found at the bottom of a stonehole have so far failed due to inadequate collagen in the sample.</div><div><br></div><div>Excavation revealed several stone settings that are thought to have been erected some time between 3400-2500 BC, due to two flint chisel arrowheads in a style commonly used during that period being found. It is estimated that there may have been as many as 27 stones in a circle 33 feet (10 m) wide. </div>
<div>Cuckoo Stone</div><div><br></div><div>The Cuckoo Stone is a squat sarsen stone which lies on its side. It the same type of stone as the largest stones used in the Stonehenge circle. The site of Woodhenge is around 500 metres to the east of the Cuckoo Stone, with Durrington Walls to the northeast. Stonehenge is around 2.5 kilometres to the southwest. The Cuckoo Stone was recorded by Richard Colt-Hoare on his 1810 map of the Stonehenge landscape. The nearest other known sarsen stone is that found within Woodhenge during excavations in 1926-28.</div><div><br></div><div>The stone was originally a natural feature, which sometime before 2000 BC, was placed in an upright position. A posthole was found in the pit, indicating that a wooden post had been placed in the hole for a time before being replaced by the upright stone. Around 2000 BC the Cuckoo Stone became the focus for several nearby cremation burials.</div>
<div>King Barrows</div><div><br></div><div>The King Barrows covers a range of barrows both north and south of the "Avenue" - The northern being the Old King Barrows, the southern the New King Barrows.</div><div><br></div><div>The earliest burial mound here is a long barrow, raised between 4000-3000BC. The majority of the tombs on King Barrows are bowl barrows on a north-south alignment but there are also two bell barrows.</div>
<div>Coneybury Henge</div><div><br></div><div>Coneybury Henge is a a heavily ploughed out henge monument that exists today as just a cropmark on the surface. Various internal features have been excavated, comprising a few pits and postholes, numerous stakeholes, and an arc of postholes concentric to the inner edge of the enclosure ditch which may have represented a post-circle. Some of the internal features probably pre-dated enclosure construction, and pottery from the site suggests that activity spanned the Early Neolithic through to the Middle Bronze Age.</div>
<div>Cursus Barrows</div><div><br></div><div>The Cursus Barrows is the name given to a Neolithic and Bronze Age round barrow cemetery located mostly south of the western end of the Stonehenge Cursus. The cemetery contains around 18 round barrows scattered along an east-to-west ridge, although some of the mounds are no longer visible.</div><div><br></div><div>The round barrow cemetery extends 1200 metres east-to-west along a ridge and measures 250 metres wide. It comprises the round barrows recorded as Amesbury 43 to 56 and Winterbourne Stoke 28 to 30, plus the Fargo hengiform. Many of the barrows were excavated by Richard Colt Hoare in the early 19th century.</div>

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