Milton's Modal Compass
<div>Milton's Modal Compass is a complex map of the regularities within the field of musical modes. A sketch of the diagram appeared on Milton Mermikides' blog Miltonline.com on the 5th of March 2015. Milton has generously approved of my attempts to visually compile his ideas.</div><div><br></div><div>There are four levels of the diagram:</div><div>A: The outer ring, contraction-expansion. </div><div>B: The seven rings of modal interval sequences. Intervallic sequence inversions.</div><div>C: Modulations (blue/orange wedges).</div><div>D: Rotations (next/preceeding degree, white arrows).</div><div>Blue colour indicates contraction. Orange colour indicates expansion.</div><div>Minor and diminished intervals tend to dissolve inwardly.</div><div>Major and augmented intervals tend to dissolve outwardly.</div><div>The blue-orange continuum reflects the level of contraction (minor) versus expansion (major) for each mode.</div><div>Locrian mode consist of a maximum of minor and diminished steps (m2, m3, P4, dim5, m6, m7). </div><div>Lydian mode consist of a maximum of Major and Augmented steps (M2, M3, A4, P5, M6, M7).</div><div>From Dorian mode which takes the balancing position with two minor, two major and two perfect functions the directions indicate:</div><div>Down left: Contraction</div><div>Down right: Expansion</div><div>Each modal scale is illustrated with its composition of major (orange) and minor (blue) steps in a circular form. 12 o'clock is the starting point - the prime/root - and the direction is clockwise.</div><div>Nomenclature: The names apply to the modern use of modes. </div><div>Inversions:</div><div>The modes reflect each other in pairs: Across the vertical axis the interval sequences of the following pairs are each other's inversions:</div><div>Aeolian-Mixolydian</div><div>Phrygian-Ionian</div><div>Locrian-Lydian</div><div>The interval sequence of Dorian mode is symmetrical, so it is its own inversion.</div>
<div>C3: Aeolian-Dorian modulation</div><div><br></div><div>To modulate from Aeolian to Dorian the minor sixth must be raised a semitone to a major sixth.</div><div><br></div><div>To modulate from Dorian to Aeolian the major sixth must be lowered a semitone to a minor sixth.</div><div><br></div>
<div>C1: Locrian-Phrygian modulation</div><div><br></div><div>To modulate from Locrian to Phrygian the diminished fifth must be raised a semitone to a perfect fifth.</div><div><br></div><div>To modulate from Phrygian to Locrian the perfect fifth must be lowered a semitone to a diminished fifth.</div><div><br></div>
<div>C2: Phrygian-Aeolian modulation</div><div><br></div><div>To modulate from Phrygian to Aeolian the minor second must be raised a semitone to a major second.</div><div><br></div><div>To modulate from Aeolian to Phrygian to Locrian the perfect fifth must be lowered a semitone to a diminished fifth.</div><div><br></div>
<div>C4: Dorian-Mixolydian modulation</div><div><br></div><div>To modulate from Dorian to Mixolydian the minor third must be raised a semitone to a major third.</div><div><br></div><div>To modulate from Mixolydian to Dorian the major third must be lowered a semitone to a minor third.</div><div><br></div>
<div>C5: Mixolydian-Ionian modulation</div><div><br></div><div>To modulate from Mixolydian to Ionian the minor seventh must be raised a semitone to a major seventh.</div><div><br></div><div>To modulate from Ionian to Mixolydian the major seventh must be lowered a semitone to a minor seventh.</div><div><br></div>
<div>C6: Ionian-Lydian modulation</div><div><br></div><div>To modulate from Ionian to Lydian the perfect fourth must be raised a semitone to an augmented fourth.</div><div><br></div><div>To modulate from Lydian to Ionian the augmented fourth must be lowered a semitone to a perfect fourth.</div><div><br></div>
<div>C7: Lydian-Locrian modulation</div><div><br></div><div>To modulate from Lydian to Locrian the root must be raised a semitone while all other pitches remain.</div><div><br></div><div>To modulate from Locrian to Lydian the root must be lowered a semitone while all other pitches remain.</div><div><br></div>
<div>D1: Ionian-Dorian rotation</div><div>Next/preceeding degree</div><div>Ionian (I)</div><div>Dorian (II)</div><div><br></div>
<div>D2: Dorian-Phrygian rotation</div><div>Next/preceeding degree</div><div>Dorian (II)</div><div>Phrygian (III)</div><div><br></div>
<div>D3: Phrygian-Lydian rotation</div><div>Next/preceeding degree</div><div>Phrygian (III)</div><div>Lydian (IV)</div><div><br></div>
<div>D4: Lydian-Mixolydian rotation</div><div>Next/preceeding degree</div><div>Lydian (IV)</div><div>Mixolydian (V)</div><div><br></div>
<div>D5: Mixolydian-Aeolian rotation</div><div>Next/preceeding degree</div><div>Mixolydian (V)</div><div>Aeolian (VI)</div><div><br></div>
<div>D6: Aeolian-Locrian rotation</div><div>Next/preceeding degree</div><div>Aeolian (VI)</div><div>Locrian (VII)</div><div><br></div>
<div>D7: Locrian-Ionian rotation</div><div>Next/preceeding degree</div><div>Locrian (VII)</div><div>Ionian (I)</div><div><br></div>
<div><br></div><div>A: The ring of contraction &lt;&gt; expansion</div><div>Blue colour indicates contraction.</div><div>Orange colour indicates expansion.</div><div>Minor and diminished intervals tend to dissolve inwardly, i.e. to smaller, more consonant intervals.</div><div>Major and augmented intervals tend to dissolve outwardly, i.e. to larger, more consonant intervals.</div><div>The blue-orange continuum reflects the level of contraction (minor) versus expansion (major) for each mode.</div><div>Locrian mode consist of a maximum of minor and diminished steps (m2, m3, P4, Dim5, m6, m7). </div><div>Lydian mode consist of a maximum of Major and Augmented steps (M2, M3, A4, P5, M6, M7).</div><div><br></div><div><br></div>
<div>B1: Locrian mode</div><div>The Locrian mode has the formula P1-m2-m3-P4-D5-m6-m7. It takes the place at the contractive extreme as all of its intervals are minor or diminished. The interval sequence is the inverse of Lydian mode.</div><div>What is now called the Locrian mode was what the Greeks called the Diatonic Mixolydian tonos.</div><div>The Locrian mode is the only modern diatonic mode in which the tonic triad is a diminished chord, which is considered dissonant. This is because the interval between the root and fifth of the chord is a diminished fifth.</div><div><br></div>
<div>B2: Phrygian mode</div><div>The Phrygian mode has the formula P1-m2-m3-P4-P5-m6-m7. Fourth and fifth are perfect but all other steps are minor.</div><div>The interval sequence is the inverse of Ionian mode.</div><div><br></div>
<div>B3: Aeolian mode</div><div>The Aeolian mode has the formula P1-M2-m3-P4-P5-m6-m7.</div><div>The interval sequence is the inverse of Mixolydian mode.</div><div>Wikipedia: "The Aeolian mode is a musical mode or, in modern usage, a diatonic scale called the natural minor scale (..)</div><div>In modern usage, the Aeolian mode is the sixth mode of the major scale"</div><div><br></div>
<div><span>B4: Dorian mode</span></div><div>Dorian mode has the formula P1-M2-m3-P4-P5-M6-m7.</div><div>The interval sequence is symmetric around the 12 o'clock axis, so Dorian is its own inversion. In this circular arrangement the Dorian mode resides at the balancing point between contraction (minor &amp; diminished intervals) and expansion (major &amp; Augmented intervals).</div><div><br></div>
<div>B5: Mixolydian mode</div><div>The Mixolydian mode has the formula P1-M2-M3-P4-P5-M6-m7. Its interval sequence is the inverse of Aeolian mode.</div><div><br></div>
<div><span>B6: Ionian mode</span></div><div>The Ionian mode has the formula P1-M2-M3-P4-P5-M6-M7. It is is essentially the same as the major mode of tonal music. Its interval sequence is the inverse of Phrygian mode.</div><div><br></div>
<div>B7: Lydian mode</div><div>Lydian mode has the formula P1-M2-M3-A4-P5-M6-M7. It takes the place at the expansive extreme as all of its intervals are major or augmented.Its interval sequence is the inverse of Locrian mode.</div><div><br></div>

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