The "February Revolution" in France was sparked by the suppression of the campagne des banquets. This revolution was driven by nationalist and republican ideals among the French general public, who believed the people should rule themselves. It ended the constitutional monarchy of Louis-Philippe, and led to the creation of the French Second Republic. This government was headed by Louis-Napoleon, who, after only four years, established the Second French Empire in 1852.Alexis de Tocqueville remarked in his Recollections of the period, "society was cut in two: those who had nothing united in common envy, and those who had anything united in common terror."[14] Hungarian Revolution of 1848 - Wikipedia
In Austria, where the new ministers promised to grant constitutions, the monarchy withstood the storm; and in Prussia King Frederick William IV, who led the movement for the unification of Germany, hoisted the black, red, and gold flag that had become the symbol of German unity. The German governments agreed to the convocation of three constituent assemblies at Berlin, Vienna, and Frankfurt by which democratic constitutions were to be drafted for Prussia, Austria, and Germany.
. Revolutions of 1848: series of republican revolts against European monarchies, beginning in Sicily, and spreading to France, Germany, Italy, and the Austrian Empire. They all ended in failure and repression, and were followed by widespread disillusionment among liberals.
. The European revolutions of 1848 begin - Louis Philippe, Metternich, Europe, history, 1848 revolutions constitutionalism liberalism and nationalism
Paris Revolutions of 1848
Eastern and Central Europe Revolutions of 1848 Prussia Kingdom of the Two Sicilies - Wikipedia A summary of Germany and Prussia in 1848 in 's Europe (1815-1848). Learn exactly what happened in this chapter, scene, or section of Europe (1815-1848) and what it means. Perfect for acing essays, tests, and quizzes, as well as for writing lesson plans. Vienna Uprising - Wikipedia Greater Poland uprising (1848) - Wikipedia
Uprising in Vienna, March 13-15 May: defense minister lynched, Emperor flees Vienna June: Imperial troops occupy Prague, disperse Pan-Slav Congress July: Imperial troops conquer Milan, defeat Piedmont October 24-31: Imperial troops conquer Vienna, with 4,000 dead November: Austria declares that its empire is indivisible Dec. 1848: Franz Joseph becomes Emperor; Hungary invaded by Russia and Austria April 1849: Revolution ends in Italy as French troops restore papal authority in Rome
Revolution breaks out in Paris, Feb. 22-24 April 23: national elections return a parliament more conservative than the Provisional Government June Days: workers rebel in Paris when the National Workshops are dissolved December 1848: Louis Napoleon elected President December 1851: Louis Napoleon seizes power, becomes “Napoleon III”
Uprising in Berlin, March 18 May: Prussian state assembly meets August: German Workers’ Congress in Berlin marks the spread of trade unionism October 16: Berlin citizens’ militia opens fire on demonstrating workers November: royal troops occupy Berlin without fighting December 1848: Frederick William IV decrees a constitution for Prussia Berlin, April 3, 1849: Frederick William IV rejects imperial crown offered by the Frankfurt Assembly May-August 1849: Austrian and Prussian troops crush uprisings in the Rhineland and southwestern Germany 1852: Cologne Communist Trial leads to prison terms for seven followers of Marx
March 30: “Pre-parliament” convenes May: German National Assembly convenes to write a constitution for a federal government June 29: Archduke Johann of Austria elected “regent” September-October: riots in Frankfurt; republican insurrection in Baden December 1848: National Assembly tilts toward Prussia March 1849: Radicals proclaim a national constitution & appeal for popular uprisings