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Bacteria Notes

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Two Domains of Prokaryotes 1) Archaea 2) Eubacteria Two Kingdoms of Bacteria 1) Archaebacteria:- Found in harsh environments such as undersea volcanic vents, acidic hot springs, salty water, and sewage treatment plants 2) Eubacteria: Called the true bacteria. Most bacteria are in this group including photosynthetic Cyanobacteria. Bacteria that live in non-harsh environments upload.wikimedia.org
Characteristics of Bacteria. 1) Microscopic prokaryotes 2) No nucleus or membrane-bound organelles 3) Contain ribosomes 4) Single, circular chromosome in nucleoid region 5) Contain a cell wall made out of peptidoglycan 6) May have a sticky coating called the Capsule for attachment to host or other bacteria 7) Most grow best at pH of 6.5 to 7.0 8) Many act as decomposers recycling nutrients 9) Some cause disease. 10) Bacteria that are motile (have the ability to move) have appendages called flagella. A bacteria can have one or many flagella 11) Pili- Short protein appendages, Smaller than flagella, i) Adhere bacteria to surfaces, ii) Used in conjugation for exchange of genetic information, iii) Aid Floatation by increasing buoyancy www.medical-labs.net
Useful Bacteria.<br><br>1) Some bacteria can degrade oil/ Used to clean up oil spills. <br>2) Other uses for bacteria include making yogurt, cheese, and buttermilk.<br><br> www.ecologyhealthcenter.net
Pathogens- Called germs or microbes. They are bacteria that cause disease. May produce poisons or toxins. Example of Toxins are Endotoxins (E. coli), Exotoxins (C. tetani) www.kantola.com
Domain/Kingdom Archaea. Characteristics 1) Lack peptidoglycan in cell walls 2) Have different lipids in their cell membrane 3) Archaebacteria can live in extremely harsh environments 4) They do not require oxygen and can live in extremely salty environments as well as extremely hot environments 5) Called the Ancient bacteria Subclasses 1) Methanogens- Live in anaerobic environments (no oxygen). Get energy by changing H2 &amp; CO2 into methane gas. Found in swamps, sewage treatment plants, digestive tracts of animals. Break down cellulose in a cow’s stomach. Produce marsh (methane) gas 2) Thermoacidophiles- Live in extremely hot environments. Found in volcanic vents, hot springs, cracks on ocean floor that leak acid 3) Extreme Halophiles- Live in very salty water. Use salt to generate ATP (energy). Dead Sea, Great Salt Lake inhabitants farm1.static.flickr.com
<div>Bacteria are classified based on Shape and Grouping. </div><div><br></div><div>1) Bacillus: Rod shaped </div><div>2) Coccus: Spherical (round) </div><div>3) Spirillum: Spiral shape </div><div><br></div><div>Arrangement: </div><div><br></div><div>4) Diplo- Groups of two, pairs </div><div>5<span>) Strepto- chains </span></div><div><span>6) Staphylo- Grapelike clusters</span></div> microbiologyonline.org
Domain/Kingdom of Eubacteria Characteristics 1) Most are heterotrophic (can’t make their own food) 2) 3 basic shapes (coccus, bacillus, spirilla) 3) May be aerobic or anaerobic 4) Contain peptidoglycan in their cell walls Class: Cyanobacteria Characteristics. 1) Photosynthetic 2) Called blue-green bacteria 3) Contain phycocyanin (red-blue) pigments &amp; chlorophyll 4) May be red, yellow, brown, black, or blue-green 5) Help fix N2 (nitrogen) 6) First to re-enter devastated areas 7) Some cause Eutrophication (use up O2 when die &amp; decompose in water) will cause algae blooms. www.etcmontessorionline.com
Reproduction Asexual Reproduction- Binary Fission. 1) Where the single chromosome replicates &amp; then cell divides. It is very Rapid. All new cells identical (clones). Sexual Reproduction- Conjugation 1) Pili forms a tube between 2 bacteria so that they can exchange genetic material. New cells NOT identical classconnection.s3.amazonaws.com
Spore Formation 1) Endospores form whenever when habitat conditions become harsh (little food). 2) Spores are able to survive for long periods of time as endosperm 3) They are very difficult to destroy (heat resistant) micro.cornell.edu
Transduction &amp; Transformation 1) Bacteria can genetically change. 2) May become antibiotic resistant 3) Transformed bacteria pick up pieces of DNA from dead bacterial cells 4) Transduction – viruses carry foreign DNA to bacteria; used to make insulin pubs.rsc.org
youtu.be Hank veers away from human anatomy to teach us about the (mostly) single-celled organisms that make up two of the three taxonomic domains of life, and one of...
Domain/Kingdom Archaea. Characteristics 1) Lack peptidoglycan in cell walls 2) Have different lipids in their cell membrane 3) Archaebacteria can live in extremely harsh environments 4) They do not require oxygen and can live in extremely salty environments as well as extremely hot environments 5) Called the Ancient bacteria Subclasses 1) Methanogens- Live in anaerobic environments (no oxygen). Get energy by changing H2 &amp; CO2 into methane gas. Found in swamps, sewage treatment plants, digestive tracts of animals. Break down cellulose in a cow’s stomach. Produce marsh (methane) gas 2) Thermoacidophiles- Live in extremely hot environments. Found in volcanic vents, hot springs, cracks on ocean floor that leak acid 3) Extreme Halophiles- Live in very salty water. Use salt to generate ATP (energy). Dead Sea, Great Salt Lake inhabitants farm1.static.flickr.com
Domain/Kingdom of Eubacteria Characteristics 1) Most are heterotrophic (can’t make their own food) 2) 3 basic shapes (coccus, bacillus, spirilla) 3) May be aerobic or anaerobic 4) Contain peptidoglycan in their cell walls Class: Cyanobacteria Characteristics. 1) Photosynthetic 2) Called blue-green bacteria 3) Contain phycocyanin (red-blue) pigments &amp; chlorophyll 4) May be red, yellow, brown, black, or blue-green 5) Help fix N2 (nitrogen) 6) First to re-enter devastated areas 7) Some cause Eutrophication (use up O2 then die &amp; decompose in water) will cause algae blooms. www.etcmontessorionline.com
Reproduction Asexual Reproduction- Binary Fission. 1) Where the single chromosome replicates &amp; then cell divides. It is very Rapid. All new cells identical (clones). Sexual Reproduction- Conjugation 1) Pili forms a tube between 2 bacteria so that they can exchange genetic material. New cells NOT identical classconnection.s3.amazonaws.com
Spore Formation 1) Endospores form whenever when habitat conditions become harsh (little food). 2) Spores are able to survive for long periods of time as endosperm 3) They are very difficult to destroy (heat resistant) micro.cornell.edu
Transduction &amp; Transformation 1) Bacteria can genetically change. 2) May become antibiotic resistant 3) Transformed bacteria pick up pieces of DNA from dead bacterial cells 4) Transduction – viruses carry foreign DNA to bacteria; used to make insulin pubs.rsc.org