The prefrontal cortex or the frontal lobe is involved wit...
The prefrontal cortex or the frontal lobe is involved with motor function, problem solving, spontaneity, memory, language, initiation, judgement, impulse control, and social and sexual behavior (Levin et al.1987). For a baby, this lobe is critical for developing walking, speech, problem solving and personality. When the child grows into an adult, they will use their frontal lobe to plan out their life and to make sense of ideas and concepts. The frontal lobe is always shaping and growing. It is still developing until the mid 20’s (Dubuc 2009). Like most parts of the brain, the frontal lobe works together with the body as a whole functioning system. The frontal lobes helps balance thought and feelings with the lower limbic, brainstem, and bodily areas’ functions (Siegel, D. 1999). The frontal lobe is one of the most important parts of the brain. However, because it the location in the brain, it is likely to become damaged. (Levin et al. 1987. pg.19). Damage to the frontal lobe can lead to a personality change in a person.” Left frontal damage usually manifests as pseudo-depression and right frontal damage as pseudo-psychopathic”(Blumer, D., & Benson, D. 1975). Knowing which part of the frontal lobe was damaged can help understand what is going on in a child and how to better teach and care for them.
Big Bang Theory - Prefrontal Cortex vs Limbic System (ckgribben,2012)
The parietal lobe is the lobe where a baby develops sensory input. This function is why a toddler cries when they are hurt or when an adult's feet hurt after a long day of standing on their feet. This is the lobe the helps with mathematics. This is where you develop concepts of order, shape, size and number. The parietal lobe also is where you develop spirituality or meditation. Being able to regulate and de-stress comes from the development of this lobe. The sense of space and time is also developed in this area. (Harney, M. 2015) Damage to the parietal lobe can lead to a number of impairments, depending on where the damage had occurred. Damage to the left parietal lobe can lead to difficulty with writing (agnosia) and mathematics (acalculia). It can also lead to the inability to perceive objects normally (agnosia). “Damage to the right parietal lobe can result in neglecting part of the body or space (contralateral neglect), which can impair many self-care skills such as dressing and washing. Right side damage can also cause difficulty in making things (constructional apraxia), denial of deficits (anosognosia) and drawing ability.” Bilateral damage can cause "Balint's Syndrome," a visual attention and motor syndrome. This is characterized by the inability to voluntarily control the gaze (ocular apraxia), inability to integrate components of a visual scene (simultanagnosia), and the inability to accurately reach for an object with visual guidance (optic ataxia) (Westmoreland, B. et al. 1994). Damage to the parietal region in a child can alter a lot of needed functions a child’s brain needs to know in school and daily life skills.
The occipital lobe is where vision signals are first process. This lobe develops from prenatal until the child is about 3 months old. The occipital lobe is responsible for sight, depth or an object or the color of something (Sousa, D. 2010. pg37). Damage to the occipital lobe, although very unlikely because of the position in the brain, can cause vision impairments (Westmoreland, B. et al. 1994). Damage to a region of the occipital lobe can cause vision loss. Whereas, a disorder to the occipital region can causes hallucinations and illusions. People may see objects bigger than they should be or distortions of color (Kandel, E., Schwartz, J., & Jessell, T. 1991). Damage or a disorder to the occipital region can have dramatic effects on a child’s vision and ability to perceive the world around them.
The cerebellum is an important part of the brain. This is the area where babies develop balance and coordination. This helps the baby learn to ability to roll, sit, crawl, walk and grip. This development of this part of the brain also helps children in school with motor coordination. Motor coordination is important for learning to write and learn important skills for the future. The cerebellum is also where memory receptor sites are located. This is where babies hold memories that help shape their experiences (Dubuc 2009). Damage to the cerebellum can affect the motor coordination of a person. A child with damage may have a hard time walking or using a pencil. (Centre for neroskils. 2015)
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The brainstem is responsible for life sustaining functions. It is the most highly developed area of a baby's brain at birth. The brainstem controls newborn’s reflexes of crying, startling and suckling. It also regulates breathing, blood pressure and heart rate, as well REM sleep (Dubuc 2009). The brainstem is also is responsible for handling emotions, especially anxiety, and calming and regulating (Pfaff 2002). Damage to the brainstem is threatening, therefore it is crucial to keep protected.
The temporal lobe is responsible for hearing. Some aspects of language, smell, memory and emotion, especially fear are also developed in the temporal lobe. Hearing is the only sense that is fully developed when a baby is born, thus this is why they cry right away. (Blackburn 2007). Later on, babies start to distinguish between sounds using the temporal lobe. This part of the brain also helps kids understand the meanings of words. The temporal helps babies create memories as well. The right side of the cerebellum is involved with visual memories and the left side is involved with verbal memories (Dubuc 2009). Damage to the temporal lobe can cause disturbance of auditory sensation, perception and input. It can also cause an impairment of organization and categorization of verbal material and language comprehension. Damage can also impair long-term memory and alter personality and affective behavior (Kolb, B., & Whishaw, I. 1990). The damage to the temporal lobe can lead to huge problems with children. It can lead to learning and behavioral problems that affect learning in a classroom and life skills needed for the future.
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Conclusion:<br>Teaching children with a Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) can be difficult but here are some steps to help teaching in a school setting:<br><br>1.Select goals that are appropriate for that child’s level of learning<br><br>2.Give clear directions and repeat directions to ensure understanding<br><br>3.Break small tasks into small steps and demonstrate each step <br><br>4.Provide opportunities for student response and practice at an appropriate pace<br><br>5.Break small tasks into small steps and demonstrate each step<br><br>6.Provide opportunities for student response and practice at an appropriate pace
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(Faul M., Xu L., Wald MM, 2010)
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