The black rat is an invasive species native to India's forests and woodlands. Picture shows the typical rat habitat. http://www.issg.org/database/species/ecology.asp?si=19 www.ecosmagazine.com
Black rats mostly follow humans. Rats were distributed by stowing away on European ships when they explored. The rats can also swim, although they don't prefer this method. http://www.issg.org/database/species/ecology.asp?si=19 upload.wikimedia.org
Black rats have invaded numerous islands including. Big South Cape Island of the coast of New Zealand. In this case, the rats probably hid in in seafreight. They arrived in 1964. It is unknown how quickly the rat population increased, but in 250 days one pregnant black rat can make a colony of 300 rats. http://www.issg.org/pdf/Varnham_2010.pdf oikonos.org
Black rats have many negative environmental affects. They prey heavily on island bird eggs resulting in the extinction of many species including the South Island Snipe. These rats also affect the biodiversity of the islands. Populations of species go into decline because they are competing for resources or the rats are transferring parasites and diseases. Finally, rats can destroy habitats and vegetation due to their large appetites. http://10000birds.com/absence-big-south-cape-island.htm http://www.ecosmagazine.com/paper/EC12344.htm images.indiegogo.com
It is difficult to eradicate the black rats from islands, because their population rapidly increase. Still, removal process underway. Most processes include the use of slow acting poisons. Because rats eat tidbits at a time, if fast acting poisons were used, the rats probably would have not eaten enough food. The poison is normally applied to the ground or nailed to trees. Bait stations prevent other animals from access the poison. http://www.issg.org/pdf/Varnham_2010.pdf newswatch.nationalgeographic.com

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