The American Academy of Dermatology put together a video explaining how to properly apply sunscreen. When buying sunscreen, it should have an SPF 30 or higher, be water resistant, and have broad spectrum. Sunscreen needs to be applied fifteen minutes before going outside because it takes that long for it to absorb. If sunscreen is put on outside in the sun, the chances of getting burnt are much higher. About one ounce of sunscreen is enough to cover the body, and make sure to get all areas that are exposed, which includes the ears and tops of feet. Use a lip balm with an SPF 15. Sunscreen should be reapplied every two hours, after getting out of the water, or if sweating profusely. These tips need to be used on cloudy days and in the winter also because sun exposure happens during all times of the year. Citation: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=L7dH-I2qLU8 www.youtube.com Sunscreen can protect your skin against skin cancer and premature aging. However, it is not as effective unless it's applied correctly. Follow these tips fro...
Treating a sunburn is an important aspect to protecting our skin. The American Academy of Dermatology assembled a video that explains how to treat a sunburn. The first step is getting inside and out of the sun. Relief can come from cold baths or showers, and then applying a lotion that contains aloe vera. Hydrocortisone cream can be applied on areas that feel particularly uncomfortable. Do not use products, such as benzocaine. Aspirin and ibuprofen will help provide pain relief. The skin draws fluid to the surface so drinking water will help prevent dehydration. If there is blistering on the skin, a second degree burn has happened and is recommended to not pop the blisters. They form to heal and protect the skin from infection. One should see a physician if blisters cover a large area, chills, headache, or fever occur. Wearing protective clothing will protect the skin and prevent further damage. These tips will help when recovering from a sunburn. Citation: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_e0YO2-Endc www.youtube.com Your skin can burn if it gets too much sun without proper protection from sunscreen and clothes. To help heal and soothe stinging skin, it is important to be...
The American Academy of Dermatology's website contains facts about skin cancer. SPOT Skin Cancer is a slogan the American Academy of Dermatology came up with to help the public understand that skin cancer is easily preventable. These suggestions include seeking shade, covering up, and wearing sunscreen. It also stresses the importance of checking your skin to easily detect changes, which can lead to skin cancer. If a spot is seen, it needs to be checked and then a life could be saved. This website is helpful for people wanting to learn about their skin and as a resource to use. Citation: https://www.aad.org/spot-skin-cancer/about-spot/spot-faqs www.aad.org
The United States Environmental Protection Agency provides a website explaining the UV index. The UV index is a forecast of how UV rays from the sun and how much exposure is happening. It calculates the strength of UV rays with where the angle of the sun will be during the day and how it will effect the skin. Shorter wavelengths cause more skin damage than longer wavelengths. Clouds and elevation are also taken into account. UV radiation negatively effects our health with skin cancers, premature aging, cataracts and eye damage, and immune suppression. Citation: http://www2.epa.gov/sunwise/uv-index www2.epa.gov
The UV index chart explains how to decipher what times of the day could have the most or least amount of UV radiation. A value of 0-2 is a low UV value and means sunscreen and sunglasses should be worn. A UV value greater than 11 is extremely high and means all precautions should be made, such as sunscreen, sunglasses, hats, shade, and being indoors from 10 a.m. to 4 p.m. Checking the UV value on a daily basis will help people plan accordingly to the amount of sun protection needed. Citation: http://mgahomecare.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/06/Sunscreen-chart.jpg mgahomecare.com
A mole chart is a good way for people to inspect themselves for skin cancer. This chart uses the ABCDE way of checking. Asymmetry is when two halves no longer match on both sides. Border refers to when smooth edges become uneven. Color changes are an indicator because benign moles are normally one color. Diameter on benign moles tend to be smaller than the diameter on malign moles. Evolving in size, shape, color, or elevation is normally a characteristic of a malign mole. Using a chart like this one allows people to keep track of their own skin and detect problems. Citation: http://images.cdn1.beautylish.com/11/09/21/ft_5d53cccf43a7479ca67c97f812a26890.jpg images.cdn1.beautylish.com
Many types of skin cancer exist and an article found overviews the most prevalent ones. Exposure to UV rays from the sun is the main cause of skin cancer. Actinic keratoses (AK) are lesions on chronic sun-exposed skin. The skin can feel rough and become redder over time. Bowen's disease appears on sun-exposed areas but also on genitalia and anus, which is not caused from UV rays. It presents with patches of crusting and scaling. Basal cell carcinoma is found on the head and neck regions with the nose being the most common site. A lesion with a rolled edge and central ulceration is what it normally looks like. Squamous cell carcinoma are ulcerated lesions that vary in size from a few millimeters to several centimeters in diameter. They are commonly found on the back of the hand, scalp, lip, and ear. Treatment and management options are stated in the article for these cancers. Citation: Wingfield, C. (2012). Skin cancer: an overview of assessment and management. Primary Health Care, 22(3), 28-38. Retrieved from http://web.a.ebscohost.com.lib-proxy.usi.edu/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=a161be06-d9db-45b7-b126-9dba9fd5c419%40sessionmgr4005&vid=6&hid=4112 web.a.ebscohost.com.lib-proxy.usi.edu
The world health organization website believes the rise in skin cancer prevalence is due to overexposure of sunlight. It provides simple precautions on sun protection. People should limi time in the sun between 10 a.m. and 4 p.m. because this is when the sun's UV rays are at their strongest. Watching the UV index helps with outdoor activities to prevent overexposure. Seeking shade by using trees or umbrellas when UV rays are most intense. Protective clothing will provide additional defense, such as hats and sunglasses. Using a sunscreen with broad-spectrum and SPF 15+ safeguards exposed skin. By avoiding tanning beds, addition damage to the skin and eyes is avoided completely. Tips like these are safety measures that will hinder our chances of being diagnosed with skin cancer. Citation: http://www.who.int/uv/sun_protection/en/ www.who.int
Eye protection is crucial when outside in the sun. UV rays can damage the structures in the eyes. Sunglasses and contact lenses have been shown to help shield UV rays. The article suggests implementing a comprehensive eye-sun protection factor (E-SPF) to compare the effectiveness of lenses. The standardization of this would provide a system that can examine how protective lenses are from shielding UV rays. Citation: Behar-Cohen, F., Baillet, G., Ayguavives, T., Garcia, P., Kutmann, J., Pena-Garcia, P., Reme, C., & Wolffsohn, J. (2013). Ultraviolet damage to the eye revisited: eye-sun protection factor (E-SPF), a new ultraviolet protection label for eyewear. Clin Ophthalmol, 87-104. doi: 10.2147/OPTH.S46189 at4rn6hm3f.search.serialssolutions.com.lib-proxy.usi.edu
Johns Hopkins University wrote an article on the photoprotection clothing can provide. Clothes are now being designed based on their protection from the sun using the ultraviolet protection factor (UPF). This was issued by the federal government as way to set standards and use measurement. Photoprotection means a coating is applied that blocks transmission of UV rays. Fabric, cover factors, colors, and UV radiation absorbers are used to develop photoprotective clothes. As with any type of clothing, if they get wet, stretched out, washed, or worn quite often the protectiveness of the clothing can be altered. Hats and eye protection also provide protection from UV rays. Citation: Morison, W. L. (2003). Photoprotection by clothing. Dermatologic Therapy, 16(1), 16-22. doi: 10.1046/j.1529-8019.2003.01603.x at4rn6hm3f.search.serialssolutions.com.lib-proxy.usi.edu
Ultraviolet Protection Factor (UPF) is now seen on clothing as a way to measure the protection it provides from UV rays. This chart is used to explain what the numerical values mean. If clothing has a UPF of 15-24, then it blocks up to 95.9% of UV rays. But if the UPF is greater than 50, it is considered the ultimate protector from UV rays. Citation: http://www.safetyumbrellas.com/uploads/3/0/5/5/3055582/4666936_orig.jpg?347 www.safetyumbrellas.com
A hat protection guide explains how different sized hats provide protection from the sun. A sun visor is the least protective with only providing shade to the eyes, face and nose. The traditional baseball cap provides shade to the eyes, face, nose, and head. If you want the most protection, a wide-brimmed hat is the best choice because it provides shade to the eyes, face, nose, head, ears, and neck. Using this information will help when choosing a hat to wear outside. Citation:http://home.sunsafecolorado.org/images/Hat_Safety_Index.jpg home.sunsafecolorado.org

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