These are the Cell Nucleus. The nucleus has the nuclear membrane, the chromatin, and the nucleolus. The nuclear membrane splits the nucleoplasm from the cytoplasm. The chromatin has DNA for mRNA production, DNA replication, and chromosomal division. The nucleous has special machinery that builds ribosomes.
This is a mitochondria. mitochondria have double membranes with different gradients between the inner and outer membrane. They have massive ATP production. They use the NADH and FADH enzymes and the electron transport hydrogen pumps and ATP synthases to make ATP. The electron transport chain accepts electrons and pushes hydrogen into the intramembrane space which is utilized by the ATP synthase.
This is the construction and function of lysosomes. They are small organelles filled with acid, hydropressure, heat, and enzymes. Lysosomes destroy polypeptides, fat and glyco particles, waste products, organelles, and when cell's suicide, they use lysosomes.
This is the Golgi Apparatus. The Golgi Apparatus made from layers of membranes or cisternae and vesicles and is found in the ectoplasm near the plasma membrane. The Golgi Body marks outgoing particles and structures for secretion into vesicles.
These are the Endoplasmic Reticulum. There are the Rough ER and Smooth ER. The Rough ER is in the endoplasm surrounding the nucleus as membrane tubules and sacs forming matrices surrounding the ER lumen. The Rough ER has ribosomes that build proteins and enzymes for post-transcription. The Smooth ER is on the surface of the endoplasm surrounding the Rough ER as tubules and sacs forming matrices around the ER lumen. The Smooth ER has enzymes that builds hormones, building materials, and cytoskeleton.
These are Centrioles. The Centrioles are made of microtubule fibers in a thick cross formation of triplet fibers. They are organization centers for microtubules. Microtubules are built of tubulin.
This is the plasma membrane. The plasma membrane is the lipid boundary between the extra cellular matrix and the cytoplasm. The membrane is composed of phospholipids, sterols, glycoproteins, saccharide chains, and protein filaments in this mesh structure. The membrane separates the cells environment forming gradients from passive and active transportation in ion, mass, heat, polarity, and chemistry. The membrane can fold itself into vesicles to transport large particles with endocytosis. The membrane can also accept vesicles and spill the contents into the environment with exocytosis.
This is the plasma membrane. The membrane's function is separating the cytoplasm from the extra cellular matrix. The plasma membrane's structure is composed of phospholipid bilayers with sterols, glycoproteins, saccharide chains, integral proteins, surface proteins, protein transporters, and cytoskeletal filaments. The plasma membrane forms gradients by separating concentration, heat, ionization and polarization. The plasma membrane can form vesicles with outer contents using endocytosis and and spill contents into the environment using exocytosis. The cytoskeleton is anchored to the plasma membrane which makes cell motility, endo and exocytosis, and cytoskeletal anchorage.
Animal Cell Video Hank tells us about the city of Eukaryopolis - the animal cell that is responsible for all the cool things that happen in our bodies. Crash Course Biology is...
This is the cytoskeleton supporting the cytoplasm. The cytoskeleton is composed of microtubules, microfilaments, and intermediate filaments. Microtubules make the support layer and apparatus composed of tubulin. They are also the pathway for motorproteins to walk across to move organelles and makes flagella and cilia that move cells in the environment. microfilaments are made of actin filaments with myosin running across that compresses the cell when activated and moves the cell. Intermediate filaments support the cell's shape and anchors organelles and the plasma membrane and are composed of keratin and other proteins.