A Viking Paint Chart
<div><span style="font-size:16px;"><b>Lead White</b></span></div><div>Lead white was probably produced and traded across Europe and was probably not very expensive. </div>
<div><span style="font-size:16px;"><b>Yellow</b></span></div><div>There are many variants of this strong yellow colour, also known as orpiment, depending on the purity of the mineral. </div><div><br></div><div>The yellow mineral occurs in Germany, Austria, Turkey, and Georgia. It was available in European market places and imported during the Viking Age, so it probably was not cheap.</div>
<div><span style="font-size:16px;"><b>Ochre</b></span></div><div>The earthy colour was produced in Denmark and abroad. Ochre is found in many variants of yellow, depending on where it was made.</div><div><br></div><div>Ochre was probably one of the cheapest and easiest pigments to produce or source. </div>
<div><span style="font-size:16px;"><b>Orange Red</b></span></div><div>The orange red colour, red lead, contains pigment of lead white. </div><div><br></div><div>It was probably produced and traded around Europe. It was widely used in the Middle Ages and probably not very expensive. </div>
<div><span style="font-size:16px;"><b>Bright Red</b></span></div><div>Cinnabar has a bright, red colour and consists of fine crystallised mineral. </div><div><br></div><div>The mineral occurs in many places in Central and Southern Europe, especially in Spain, and could have been sold from there. It was probably expensive.</div>
<div><span style="font-size:16px;"><b>Iron Oxide Red</b></span></div><div>Iron oxide is found in many varieties from yellowish red to blueish red and gets its colour from soil clay. </div><div><br></div><div>Iron oxide occurs in many places around Europe and was probably inexpensive to buy.</div>
<div><span style="font-size:16px;"><b>Brown</b></span></div><div>Umber is a brown pigment from soil used raw or burnt to achieve a different shade. </div><div><br></div><div>The earthy colour comes primarily from Central and Southern Europe and was probably inexpensive. </div>
<div><span style="font-size:16px;"><b>Copper Green</b></span></div><div>The green colour comes from copper mineral malachite. When archaeologists first discovered it, it was painted on a brown base, which gave it the colour shown here. </div><div><br></div><div>It was probably produced in Europe and imported to Denmark, so it could have been relatively expensive. </div>
<div><span style="font-size:16px;"><b>Blue</b></span></div><div>The blue colour, vivianite, is a mineral iron and can appear as a bluey black colour. </div><div><br></div><div>Vivianite mineral is found throughout Europe, but archaeologists do not know whether it was an expensive pigment to buy. </div>
<div><span style="font-size:16px;"><b>Vivianite + Lead White </b></span></div><div>A combination of vivianite and white produced a blue-grey colour. </div><div><br></div><div>Archaeologists do not know which shade was used and it could well have looked rather different to this example.</div>
<div><span style="font-size:16px;"><b>Charcoal Black + Lead White</b></span></div><div>Composed of crushed charcoal, which produced a deep, black colour (number 11, left) </div><div><br></div><div>It was often blended with white lead and therefore existed in many different shades (number 12, right). </div><div><br></div><div>Charcoal black was especially easy to produce and was therefore the cheapest pigment of all. </div>

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